Heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments in Tasik Chini, a freshwater lake, Malaysia
The purpose of this paper are to determine the concentration of heavy metals namely cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in water and sediment; and to investigate the effect of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on concentration of cadmium, copper and lead in sediment at oxidation fraction. For this purpose the concentration of heavy metals were measured in water and sediments at 15 sites from Tasik Chini, Peninsular Malaysia. The sequential extraction procedure used in this study was based on defined fractions: exchangeable, acid reduction, oxidation, and residual. The concentration of heavy metals in residual fraction was higher than the other fractions. Among the non-residual fractions, the concentration of heavy metals in organic matter fraction was much higher than other fractions collected from all sampling sites. The pH of the sediment in all sites was acidic. The mean pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.5 with the higher value observed at site 15. Results of organic matter analysis showed that the percentage of organic matter present in sediment samples varies throughout the lake and all sites of sediments were relatively rich in organic matter ranging from 13.0% to 34.2%. The highest mean percentage of organic matter was measured at sampling site 15, with value of 31.78%.
KeywordsConcentration Heavy metals Individual contamination factor Sediments Sequential extraction Tasik Chini
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Clements, W., & Newman, M. (2002). Community ecotoxicology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Dean, J. R. (2002). Methods for environmental trace analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Elith, M., & Garwood, S. (2001). Investigation into the levels of heavy metals within Manly Dam Catchment. In: Freshwater ecology report 2001. Sydney: Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology.Google Scholar
- Forstner, U. (1985). Chemical forms and reactivities of metals in sediment. In R. Leschber, R. D. Davids, Ľ. Hermite (Eds), Chemical methods for assessing bio-available metals in sludges and soils (pp. 1–30). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Gangaiya, P., Tabudravu, J., South, R., & Sotheeswaran, S. (2001). Heavy metal contaminationof the Lami coastal environment, Fiji. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 19, 24–29Google Scholar
- Ho, S. T., Tsai L. J., & Yu, K. C. (2003). Correlations among aqua- regia extractable heavy metals in vertical river sediments. Diffuse Pollution Conference, Dublin, 1, 12–18.Google Scholar
- Islam, S. M., Barazani, M. G., & Rahim, S. A. (2005). Chini Lake integrated lake management. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the Second Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, Kuala Lumpur, March.Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Ma, L. Q., & Rao, G. N. (1997). Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, 259–264.Google Scholar
- Namminga, H. N., & Wilhm, J. (1976). Effects of high discharge and an oil refinery cleanup operation bon heavy metals in water and sediments in Skeleton Creek. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 56, 133–138.Google Scholar
- Samecka-Cymerman, A., & Kempers, A. J. (2001). Concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes former open cut brown coal/mines differing in stage of acidification. Science of the Total Environment, 281, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xiangdong, L., Zhenguo, S., Onyx, W. H. W., & Yok-sheung L. (2000). Chemical partitioning of heavy metal contaminants in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 12, 17–25.Google Scholar