Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 139, Issue 1–3, pp 77–91 | Cite as

Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

  • Helle Marcussen
  • Karin Joergensen
  • Peter E. Holm
  • Daniela Brocca
  • Robert W. Simmons
  • Anders Dalsgaard
Article

Abstract

Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11–18.7 As, 0.333–0.667 Cd, 10.8–14.5 Co, 68–122 Cr, 34.0–62.1 Cu, 29.9–52.8 Ni, 32.5–67.4 Pb, 0.578–0.765 Tl and 99–189 Zn mg kg−1 dry weight (d.w.). In all samples Cd, Pb and Zn soil concentrations were below the Vietnamese Guideline Values (TCVN 7209-2002) for agricultural soils whereas As and Cu exceeded the guideline values. Maximum site element concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg−1 fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil element concentrations were of less importance. The estimated average daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn for adult Vietnamese consumers amounts to <11% of the maximum tolerable intake proposed by FAO/WHO for each element. It is assessed that the occurrence of the investigated elements in water spinach will pose low health risk for the consumers.

Keywords

Food safety Hanoi Multi element Soil Toxic metals Vietnam Wastewater Water spinach 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helle Marcussen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karin Joergensen
    • 1
  • Peter E. Holm
    • 1
  • Daniela Brocca
    • 3
  • Robert W. Simmons
    • 4
  • Anders Dalsgaard
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Food Chemistry, Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary ResearchMinistry of Family and Consumer AffairsSoeborgDenmark
  4. 4.International Water Management Institute (IWMI)South Asia Regional Office, c/o ICRISATPatencheruIndia

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