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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 146, Issue 1–3, pp 113–126 | Cite as

Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area

  • Chih-Hua Chang
  • Ching-Gung Wen
  • Chia-Hui Huang
  • Shui-Ping Chang
  • Chih-Sheng Lee
Article

Abstract

Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program – FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or \({\text{PO}}_4^{3 - } - {\text{P}}\) to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

Keywords

HSPF Forest Unit load Regression model Nonpoint source pollution 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Hua Chang
    • 1
  • Ching-Gung Wen
    • 1
  • Chia-Hui Huang
    • 2
  • Shui-Ping Chang
    • 3
  • Chih-Sheng Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Environment Research Center (SERC)National Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  2. 2.Institute of Nuclear Energy ResearchAtomic Energy CouncilTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental EngineeringKun-Shan UniversityYun Kan CityTaiwan

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