Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 145, Issue 1–3, pp 1–6 | Cite as

Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India

  • Surindra SutharEmail author
  • Vinod K. Garg
  • Sushant Jangir
  • Simarjeet Kaur
  • Nidhi Goswami
  • Sushma Singh


This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some villages of northern Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Water samples collected form deep aquifer based hand-pumps were analysed for fluoride content. Fluoride in presently studied sites was recorded in the ranges of 4.78 and 1.01 mg/l. The average fluoride concentration for this region was recorded 2.82 mg/l. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by WHO or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 95 of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. The middle and eastern parts of the Hanumangarh, a northern most district of the state, can be classified as higher risk area for fluorosis; due to relatively high concentrations of fluoride (3–4 mg/l) in groundwater of this region. After evaluating the data of this study it is concluded that there is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis.


Drinking water Fluoride Fluorosis Groundwater India Rajasthan 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surindra Suthar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vinod K. Garg
    • 2
  • Sushant Jangir
    • 1
  • Simarjeet Kaur
    • 1
  • Nidhi Goswami
    • 1
  • Sushma Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of ZoologyS.G.N. Khalsa (PG) CollegeSri GanganagarIndia
  2. 2.Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and TechnologyHisarIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryN. M. (PG) CollegeHanumangarh TownIndia

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