Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 124, Issue 1–3, pp 167–194 | Cite as

Contaminant exposure in outmigrant juvenile salmon from Pacific Northwest estuaries of the United States

  • Lyndal L. Johnson
  • Gina M. Ylitalo
  • Mary R. Arkoosh
  • Anna N. Kagley
  • Coral Stafford
  • Jennie L. Bolton
  • Jon Buzitis
  • Bernadita F. Anulacion
  • Tracy K. Collier
Original Article

Abstract

To better understand the dynamics of contaminant uptake in outmigrant juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tissues and prey of juvenile chinook and coho salmon from several estuaries and hatcheries in the US Pacific Northwest. PCBs, DDTs, and PAHs were found in tissues (whole bodies or bile) and stomach contents of chinook and coho salmon sampled from all estuaries, as well as in chinook salmon from hatcheries. Organochlorine pesticides were detected less frequently. Of the two species sampled, chinook salmon had the highest whole body contaminant concentrations, typically 2--5 times higher than coho salmon from the same sites. In comparison to estuarine chinook salmon, body burdens of PCBs and DDTs in hatchery chinook were relatively high, in part because of the high lipid content of the hatchery fish. Concentrations of PCBs were highest in chinook salmon from the Duwamish Estuary, the Columbia River and Yaquina Bay, exceeding the NOAA Fisheries' estimated threshold for adverse health effects of 2400 ng/g lipid. Concentrations of DDTs were especially high in juvenile chinook salmon from the Columbia River and Nisqually Estuary; concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile were highest in chinook salmon from the Duwamish Estuary and Grays Harbor. Juvenile chinook salmon are likely absorbing some contaminants during estuarine residence through their prey, as PCBs, PAHs, and DDTs were consistently present in stomach contents, at concentrations significantly correlated with contaminant body burdens in fish from the same sites.

Keywords

Chinook salmon Coho salmon Contaminants PAHs PCBs DDTs Pesticides Washington Oregon Estuary 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, D., Kallman, B.J., Cope, O.B., & Van Valin C. (1963). Insecticides: Effects on cutthroat trout of repeated exposure to DDT. Science, 142, 958–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony, R.G., Garrett, M.G., & Schuler, C. (1993). Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River Estuary. Journal of Wildlife Management 57, 10–19.Google Scholar
  3. Arkoosh, M.R., Casillas, E., Clemons, E., McCain, B.B., & Varanasi, U. (1991). Suppression of immunological memory in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from an urban estuary. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 1, 261–277.Google Scholar
  4. Arkoosh, M.R., Clemons, E., Myers, M., & Casillas, E. (1994). Suppression of B-cell mediated immunity in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after exposure to either a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or to polychlorinated biphenyls. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 16, 293–314.Google Scholar
  5. Arkoosh, M.R, Casillas, E., Huffman, P., Clemons, E., Evered, J. Stein, J.E., & Varanasi., U. (1998). Increased susceptibility of juvenile chinook salmon from a contaminated estuary to the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127, 360–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arkoosh, M.R., Casillas, E., Clemons, E., Huffman, P., Kagley, A.N., Collier, T.K., & Stein, J.E. (2001). Increased susceptibility of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to vibriosis after exposure to chlorinated and aromatic compounds found in contaminated urban estuaries. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 13, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arkoosh, M.R, Clemons, E., Kagley, A.N., Stafford, C., Glass, A.C., Jacobson, K., Reno, P., Myers, M.S., Casillas, E., Johnson, L.L., & Collier.T.K. (2004). Survey of pathogens in juvenile (Onchorhynchus spp.) migrating through Pacific Northwest estuaries. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 16, 186–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arukwe, A.T., Celius, B., Walther, T., & Goksoyr, A. (1998). Plasma levels of vitellogenin and eggshell Zona radiata proteins in 4-nonyphenol and o,p -DDT treated juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Marine Environmental Research 46, 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry): (2002). Toxicological profile for DDT, DDE, DDD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, M.W., Heck, K.L., Jr., Able, K.W., Childers, D.L., Eggleston, D.B., Gillanders, B.M., Halpern, B., Hays, C.G., Hoshino, K., Minello, T.J., Orth, R.J., Sheridan, P.F., & Weinstein, M.P. (2001). The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. Bioscience, 51, 633–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bottom, D.L., Simenstad, C.A., Burke, J., Baptista, A.M., Jay, D.A., Jones, K.K., Casillas, E., & Schiewe, M.H. (2005). Salmon at River's End: The Role of the Estuary in the Decline and Recovery of Columbia River Salmon. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-68, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  12. Bravo, C., Curtis, L., Bayne, C., Gerwick, L., Arkoosh, M., Lambertini, E., Loge, F., & Collier, T. (2005). Increased disease susceptibility in Oncorhynchus mykiss associated with exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PAH. In: Proceedings of SETAC 26th Annual Meeting in North America, ‘Environmental Science in a Global Society: SETAC's Role in the Next 25 Years’, November 13–17, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Paper BRA-1117-846804.Google Scholar
  13. Brodeur, R.D. & Pearcy, W.G. (1990). Trophic relations of juvenile Pacific salmon off the Oregon and Washington coast. Fisheries Bulletin 88, 617–636.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, D.W., McCain, B.B., Horness, B.H., Sloan, C.A., Tilbury, K.L., S.M.Pierce, S.M., Burrows, D., Chan, S-L., Landahl, J.T., & Krahn, M.M. (1998). Status, correlations, and temporal trends of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment from selected sites on the Pacific Coast of the USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buck, J.A., Anthony, R.G., Schuler, C.A., Isaacs, F.B., & Tillitt, D.E. (2005). Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the Lower Columbia River, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24, 1779–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buhler, D.R., Rasmusson, M.E., & Shanks, W.E. (1969). Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 14, 535–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burdick, G.E., Harris, E.J., Dean, H.J., Walker, T.M., Skea, J., & Colby, D. (1964). The accumulation of DDT in lake trout and the effect on reproduction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 93, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casillas E., Arkoosh, M.R., Clemons, E., Hom, T., Misitano, D., Collier, T.K., Stein, J.E., & Varanasi, U. (1995). Chemical contaminant exposure and physiological effects in out-migrant juvenile chinook salmon from selected urban estuaries of Puget Sound, Washington. In: M. Keefe (ed), Salmon Ecosystem Restoration: Myth and Reality: Proceedings of the 1994 Northeast Pacific chinook and Coho Salmon Workshop, Oregon Chapter, Corvallis, OR: American Fisheries Society, pp. 85–102.Google Scholar
  19. Casillas, E., Eberhart, B-T.L. Sommers, F.C., Collier, T.K., Krahn, M.M., & Stein, J.E. (1998). Effects of Chemical contaminants from the Hylebos Waterway on growth of juvenile chinook salmon. Interpretive Report, prepared for NOAA Damage Assessment Center by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Naional Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  20. Celius, T., & Walther, B.T. (1998). Differential sensitivity of zonagenesis and vitellogenesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) to DDT pesticides. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 281, 346–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christiansen, L.B., Pedersen, K.L., Pedersen, S.N., Korsgaard, B., & Bjerregaard, P. (2000). In vivo comparison of xenoestrogens using rainbow trout vitellogenin induction as a screening system. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19, 1867–1874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Collier, T.K., Johnson, L.L., Stehr, C.M., Myers, M.S., Krahn, M.M., & Stein, J.E. (1998). Fish Injury in the Hylebos Waterway of Commencement Bay, Washington. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-36, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  23. Cortright, R., Weber, J., & Bailey, R. (1987). The Oregon Estuary Plan Book. Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development, State of Oregon, Salem, Oregon.Google Scholar
  24. Dorcey, A.H.J, Northcote, R.G., & Ward, D.V. (1978). Are the Fraser marshes essential to salmon? Technical Report, Univ. British Columbia Westwater Res. Cent. Tech. Rep. 1, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.Google Scholar
  25. Donohoe, R.M., & Curtis, L.R. (1996). Estrogenic activity of chlordecone, o,p -DDT and o,p -DDE in juvenile rainbow trout: Induction of vitellogenesis and interaction with hepatic estrogen binding sites. Aquatic Toxicology, 36, 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duffy, E.J., Beauchamp, D.A., & Buckley, R.M. (2005). Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64, 94–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Easton, M.D.K., Luszniak, D., & Von der Geest, E. (2002). Preliminary examination of contaminant loadings in farmed salmon, wild salmon and commercial salmon feed. Chemosphere, 46, 1053–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feist, B.D., Steel, E.A., Pess, G.R., & Bilby, R.E. (2003). The influence of scale on salmon habitat restoration priorities. Animal Conservation 6, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foster, E.P, Fitzpatrick, M.S., Feist, G.W., Schreck, C.B., Yates, J., Spitsbergen, J.M., & J.R. Heidel, J.R. (2001a). Plasma androgen correlation, EROD Induction, reduced condition factor, and the occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in reproductively immature white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41, 182–191.Google Scholar
  30. Foster, E.P., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Feist, G.W., Schreck, C.B., & Yates, J. (2001b). Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 67, 239–245.Google Scholar
  31. Fresh, K.L., Casillas, E., Johnson, L.L., & Bottom, D.L. (2005). Role of the Estuary in the Recovery of Columbia River Basin Salmon and Steelhead: An Evaluation of the Effects of Selected Factors on Salmonid Population Viability. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC-69, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  32. Gray, A., Simenstad, C.A., D.L. Bottom, D.L., & Cornwell, T.J. (2002). Contrasting functional performance of juvenile salmon habitat in recovering wetlands of the Salmon River Estuary, Oregon, U.S.A. Restoration Ecology, 10, 514–526.Google Scholar
  33. Healey, M.C. (1982). Juvenile Pacific salmon in estuaries: the life support system. In: V.S. Kennedy (ed), Estuarine Comparisons. New York: Academic Press pp. 315–341.Google Scholar
  34. Healey, M.C. (1991). Life-history of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In: C. Groot and L. Margolis (eds), Pacific Salmon Life Histories. Vancouver, British Columbia: UBC Press, pp. 311–393.Google Scholar
  35. Healey, M.C., & Prince, A. (1995). Scales of variation in life history tactics of Pacific salmon and the conservation of phenotype and genotype. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 17, 176–184.Google Scholar
  36. Henny, C.J., Kaiser, J.L., Grove, R.A., Bentley, V.R., & Elliott, J.E. (2003). Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 84, 275–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hites, R.A., Foran, J.A., Carpenter, D.O., Hamilton, M.C., Knuth, B.A., & Schwager, S.J. (2004). Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science, 303, 226–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jackson, L.J., Carpenter, S.R., Manchester-Neesvig, J., & Stow, C.A. (2001). PCB congeners in Lake Michigan coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 856–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobs, M.N, Covaci, A., & Schepens, P. (2002). Investigation of selected persistent organic pollutants in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), salmon aquaculture feed, and fish oil components of feed. Environmental Science and Technology 36, 2797–2805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, H.E., & Pecor, C. (1969). Coho salmon mortality and DDT in Lake Michigan. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 34, 159.Google Scholar
  41. Karl, H., Khulmann, H., & Ruhoff, U. (2003). Transfer of PCDDs and PCDFs into the edible parts of farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), via feed. Aquaculture Research, 34, 1009–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan, A. & Thomas, P. (1998). Estradiol-17 beta and o,p -DDT stimulate gonadotropin release in Atlantic croaker. Marine Environmental Research 46, 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krahn, M.M., Moore, L.K., & MacLeod, J.W.D. (1986). Standard Analytical Procedures of the NOAA National Analytical Facility, 1986. Metabolites of Aromatic Compounds in Fish Bile. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-F/NWC-102, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  44. Kreummel, E., MacDonald, R.W., Kimpe, L.E., Gregory-Eaves, I., Demers, M.J., Smol, J.P., Finney, B., & Blais, J.M. (2003). Aquatic ecology — Delivery of pollutants by spawning salmon. Nature, 425, 255–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lauenstein, G.G., Cantillo A.Y., & Dolvin, S.S. (1993). NOAA National Status and Trends Program Development and Methods. In: Lauenstein, G.G., Cantillo, A.Y., (eds), Sampling and Analytical Methods of the National Status and Trends Programs National Benthic Surveillance and Mussel Watch Projects 1984–1992 Vol 1—Overview and Summary Methods. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 71. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  46. LCREP (Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership): (1999). Lower Columbia River Estuary Program Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan. Technical Report. LCREP, Portland, Oregon, USA.Google Scholar
  47. Levy, D.A. & Northcote, T.G. (1982). Juvenile salmon residency in a marsh area of the Fraser River Estuary. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 270–276.Google Scholar
  48. Loge, F.J., Arkoosh, M.R., Ginn, T.R., Johnson, L.L., & Collier, T.K. (2005). Impact of environmental stressors on dynamics of disease transmission. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 7329–7336. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacDonald, R.W., & Crecelius, E.A. (1994). Marine sediments in the Strait of Georgia, Juan de Fuca Strait, and Puget Sound: What can they tell us about contamination? Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1948, 101–134.Google Scholar
  50. Magnusson, A. (2003). Estuarine influence on survival rates of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from hatcheries on the U. S. Pacific Coast. Estuaries, 26, 1094–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Malins, D.C., McCain, B.B., Brown, D.W., Sparks, A.K., Hodgins, H.O., & Chan, S.-L. (1982). Chemical contaminants and abnormalities in fish and invertebrates from Puget Sound. NOAA Technical Memorandum OMPA 19. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  52. Manchester-Neesvig, J.B., Valters, K., & Sonzogni, W.C. (2001). Comparison of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Michigan salmonids. Environmental Science and Technology 35, 1072–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McCain, B.B., Malins, D.C., Krahn, M.M., Brown, D.W., Gronlund, W.D., Moore, L.K., & Chan. S.-L. (1990). Uptake or aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons by juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) in an urban estuary. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 19, 10–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McMahon, T.E. & Holtby, L.B. (1992). Behavior, habitat use, and movements of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts during seaward migration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49, 1478–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Meador, J.P., Collier, T.K., & J.E. Stein, J.E. (2002). Use of tissue and sediment-based threshold concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to protect juvenile salmonids listed under the US Endangered Species Act. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 12, 493–516.Google Scholar
  56. Meador, J.P., Sommers, F.C., Ylitalo, G.M., & Brown, D.W. (2005). Biological responses in juvenile chinook salmon from dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)', in: Proceedings of SETAC 26rm Annual Meeting in North America, ‘Environmental Science in a Global Society: SETAC's Role in the Next 25 Years’;, November 13–17, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Paper MEA-1117-84663.Google Scholar
  57. Milston, R.H., Fitzpatrick, M.S., Vella, A.T., Clements, S., Gunderson, D., Feist, G., Crippe, T.L., Leong, J., & Schreck, C.B. (2003). Short-term exposure of chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tschawytstcha) to o,p -DDE or DMSO during early life-history stages causes long-term humoral immunosuppression. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 1601–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Missildine, B.R., Peters, R.J., Chin-Leo, G., & Houck, D. (2005). Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to coastal and Puget Sound hatcheries of Washington State. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 6944–6951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moser, M.L., Olson, A.F., & Quinn, T.P. (1991). Riverine and estuarine migratory behavior of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48, 1670–1678.Google Scholar
  60. Myers, M.M., L.L., & Collier, T.K. (2003). Establishing the causal relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and hepatic neoplasms and neoplasia-related liver lesions in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9, 67–94.Google Scholar
  61. Nendza, M., Herbst, T., Kussatz, C., & Gies, A. (1997). Potential for secondary poisoning and biomagnification in marine organisms. Chemosphere, 35, 1875–1885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. O'Neill, S.M., West, J.E., & Hoeman, J.C. (1998). Spatial trends in the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Puget Sound and factors affecting PCB accumulation: results from the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program. Puget Sound Research Proceedings, Olympia, WA.Google Scholar
  63. Palm, R.C. Jr., Powell, D.B., Skillman, A., & Godtfredsen, K. (2004). Immunocompetence of juvenile chinook salmon against Listonella anguillarum following dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 2986–2994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Papoulias, D.M., Villalobos, S.A., Meadows, J., Noltie, D.B., Giesy, J.P., & Tillitt, D.E. (2003). In ovo exposure to o,pá-DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parkins, C. (2003). The potential of Polychlorinated Biphenyls contamination of aquaculture products through feed. Journal of Shellfish Research 22, 298–299.Google Scholar
  66. Peterson, R.H. (1976). Temperature selection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as influenced by various toxic substances. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 33, 1722–1730.Google Scholar
  67. Poels, C.L.M., van Der Gaag, M.A., & van de Kerkhoff, J.F.J. (1980). An investigation into the long-term effect of Rhine water on rainbow trout. Water Research 14, 1029–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reimers, P.E. (1973). The length of residence of juvenile fall chinook salmon in Sixes River. Oregon.Res. Rep. Fish Comm. Oreg, 4, 3–43.Google Scholar
  69. Rice, C.A. Johnson, L.L., P. Roni, P., Feist, B.E., Hood, W.G., Tear, L.A., Simenstad, C.A., & Williams G.D. (2005). Monitoring rehabilitation in temperate North American estuaries. In: Roni, P., (ed), Monitoring Stream and Watershed Restoration. Alpharetta, GA: American Fisheries Society, pp. 165–204.Google Scholar
  70. Roher, T.K., Forney, J.C., & Hartig, J.H. (1982). Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in standard fillets of coho and chinook salmon of the Great Lakes – 1980. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 8, 623–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schabetsberger, R., Morgan, C.A., Brodeur, R.D., Potts, C.L., Peterson, W.T., & Emmett, R.L. (2003). Prey selectivity and diel feeding chronology of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon in the Columbia River plume. Fisheries Oceanography, 12, 523–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shreffler, D.K., Simenstead, C.A., & Thom, R.M. (1990). Temporary residence by juvenile salmon in a restored estuarine wetland. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47, 2079–2084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Simenstad, C.A., Fresh, K.L., & Salo E.O. (1982). The role of Puget Sound and Washington coastal estuaries in the life history of Pacific salmon: an unappreciated function. In: V.S. Kennedy (ed), Estuarine Comparisons. New York: Academic Press, pp. 343–364.Google Scholar
  74. Sloan, C.A., N.G. Adams, N.G., Pearce, R.W., Brown, D.W., & Chan, S-L. (1993). Northwest Fisheries Science Center Organic Analytical Procedures. In: Lauenstein, G.G. and Cantillo, A.Y., (eds.) Sampling and Analytical Methods of the National Status and Trends Program, National Benthic Surveillance and Mussel Watch Projects 1984–1992. Volume IV. Comprehensive Descriptions of Trace Organic Analytical Methods. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA Technical. Memorandum. NOS ORCA 71, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Maryland, USA: Silver Spring, pp. 53–97Google Scholar
  75. Sloan, C.A., Brown, D.W., Pearce, R.W., Boyer, R.H., Bolton, J.L., Burrows, D.G., Herman, D.P., & Krahn, M.M. (2005). Determining aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons in sediments and tissues using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In: Ostrander, G.K., (ed), Techniques in Aquatic Toxicology – Volume 2, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  76. Spromberg, J.A., & Meador, J.P. (2005). Population-level effects on chinook salmon from chronic toxicity test measurement endpoints. Integrated Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 1, 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stehr, C.M., Brown, D.W., Hom, T., Anulacion, B.F., Reichert, W.L., & Collier, T.K. (2000). Exposure of juvenile chinook and chum salmon to chemical contaminants in the Hylebos Waterway of Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. Journal Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, 7, 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stein, J.E., Hom, T., Collier, T.K., Brown, D.W., & Varanasi, U. (1995). Contaminant exposure and biochemical effects in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from urban and non-urban estuaries of Puget Sound, WA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14, 1019–1029.Google Scholar
  79. Telliard, W.A. (1999). EPA analytical methods for the determination of pollutants in the environment. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 29, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. TetraTech Inc. (1993). Reconnaissance survey of the Lower Columbia River. Final Reconnaissance Report TC-8526-06. Prepared for Lower Columbia River Bi- State Water Quality Program by Tetra Tech, Inc., Redmond, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  81. TetraTech Inc. (1994). Lower Columbia River backwater reconnaissance survey. Reconnaissance Report TC 9405-01 Prepared for Lower Columbia River Bi-State Water Quality Program by Tetra Tech, Inc., Redmond, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  82. TetraTech Inc. (1996). Lower Columbia River Bi-State Program- The Health of the River, 1990–1996. Integrated Technical Report 0253-01, prepared for Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Washington Department of Ecology by Tetra Tech, Inc., Redmond, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
  83. Thomas, C.M. & Anthony, R.G. (2003). Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the Lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18, 2804–2816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1997). The Incidence and Severity of Sediment Contamination in Surface Waters of the United States. Volume 1: National Sediment Quality Survey. EPA Report No. EPA 823-R-97-006. Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  85. USEPA. (2000). Columbia River Basin Fish Contaminant Survey1996–1998. EPA Report No. EPA 910-R-02-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region 10. Seattle, Washington 98101.Google Scholar
  86. USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service): (1999). Organochlorine contaminants in double-crested cormorants from Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge in the Columbia River Estuary. Technical Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Portland, OR: Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office.Google Scholar
  87. UWFWS. (2004). Environmental contaminants in aquatic resources from the Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Technical Report, Portland, Oregon, USA: Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office.Google Scholar
  88. Varanasi, U., Stein, J.E., Reichert, W.L., Tilbury, K.L., Krahn, M.M., & Chan, S.-L. (1992). Chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments, fish and marine mammals in US coastal waters: Laboratory and field studies of metabolism and accumulation. In: Walker, C., and D.R. Livingstone (eds), Persistent Pollutants in the Marine Environment. New York, New York, USA: Permagon Press.Google Scholar
  89. Varanasi, U., Casillas, E., Arkoosh, M.R., Hom, T., Misitano, D.A., Brown, D.W., Chan, S.-L,, Collier, T.K., McCain, B.B., & Stein, J.E. (1993). Contaminant exposure and associated biological effects in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from urban and nonurban estuaries of Puget Sound, NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS-NWFSC-8, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  90. Vuorinen, P.J., Paasivirta, J., Keinaenen, M., Koistinen, J., Rantio, T., Hyoetylaeinen, T., & Welling, L. (1997). The M74 syndrome of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and organochlorine concentrations in the muscle of female salmon. Chemosphere, 34, 1151–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Whyte J.J., Jung R.E., Schmitt C.J., & Tillitt D.E. (2000). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in fish as a biomarker of chemical exposure. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 30, 347–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Williams, D.E., Lech, J.J., & Buhler, D.R. (1998). Xenobiotics and xenoestrogens in fish: modulation of cytochrome P450 and carcinogenesis. Mutation Research, 399, 179–92.Google Scholar
  93. Zaroogian, G. Gardner, D., Borsay Horowitz, B., Gutjahr-Gobell, R., Haebler, R., & Mills, L. (2001). Effect of 17beta-estradiol, o,p-DDT, octylphenol and p,p-DDE on gonadal development and liver and kidney pathology in juvenile male summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus). Aquatic Toxicology 54, 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyndal L. Johnson
    • 1
  • Gina M. Ylitalo
    • 1
  • Mary R. Arkoosh
    • 1
  • Anna N. Kagley
    • 1
  • Coral Stafford
    • 1
  • Jennie L. Bolton
    • 1
  • Jon Buzitis
    • 1
  • Bernadita F. Anulacion
    • 1
  • Tracy K. Collier
    • 1
  1. 1.Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Environmental Conservation DivisionNational Marine Fisheries, Service, NOAASeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations