Toxicity Testing of Leachate from Waste Landfills Using Medaka (Oryzias Latipes) for Monitoring Environmental Safety
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To investigate the environmental safety of waste disposal landfill sites and of land reclaimed from such sites, we evaluated the toxicity of leachate from these sites by a combination of bioassays in the Japanese killifish medaka Oryzias latipes. We tested for lethal toxicity in adult and larval medaka and for hatching inhibition of embryos from eggs. As biochemical evidence of the effects of leachate exposure, CYP1A (EROD activity) and vitellogenin (Vtg) were induced. We also bioassayed water-treated leachate and downstream river water. Leachate solution was lethal to larval and adult medaka. Embryo hatchability was inhibited, and abnormal hatching, spinal deformity and anisophthalmia occurred in embryos exposed to leachate solution. CYP1A was induced by exposure to leachate solution diluted to 1.0%, and EROD activity was significantly higher than in control. Vtg and unknown proteins were induced in the sera of male medaka exposed to the diluted leachate solution. Conventional water treatments worked effectively to remove toxic compounds but did not work well to remove element ions, including heavy metals. Treated leachate produced neither lethal toxicity nor hatching abnormalities during the exposure period. Fish toxicity tests for leachate would be useful for monitoring the environmental safety of landfill sites.
Keywordsecotoxicity hazardous waste leachate lethal toxicity medaka waste disposal landfill site
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