Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 115, Issue 1–3, pp 51–67 | Cite as

Radiocaesium Activity Concentrations in Wheat Grains in the Republic of Croatia for 1965–2003 and Dose Assessment

  • Zdenko Franić
  • Gordana Marović
  • Nevenka Lokobauer
Article

Abstract

Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in wheat for the period 1965–2003 are summarized. Radiocaesum fallout activities affect wheat activity concentrations, the coefficient of correlation being 0.91. In the observed period, the highest activity of 137Cs deposited by fallout, 6321 Bq m−2, was recorded in 1986, i.e., in the year of Chernobyl accident, causing peak 137Cs activity concentration in wheat of 38.0 ± 13.0 Bq kg−1. After the Chernobyl nuclear accident the 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in wheat was ≈0.5, and did not differ from the value found in other environmental samples. The transfer coefficient from 137Cs fallout deposition to wheat was calculated to be 8.6 × 10−3 Bq y kg−1 per Bq m−2, indicating the low transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to wheat. The upper limit for the collective effective dose for the Croatian population due to 137Cs and 134Cs ingestion by wheat and wheat products consumption for period 1965–2003 was estimated to be 665 person-Sv, the upper limit for the annual collective effective dose in 2003 being only about 0.061 person-Sv.

Keywords

Chernobyl fallout dose assessment radiocaesium radioecological sensitivity wheat grains 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aarkrog, A.: 1998, ‘The radiological impact of the Chernobyl debris compared with that from nuclear weapons fallout’, J. Environ. Radioactivity. 6, 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauman, A., Cesar, D., Franić, Z., Kovač, J., Lokobauer, N., Marović, G., Maračić, M. and Novaković, M.: 1979–1992, ‘Results of Environmental Radioactivity Measurements in the Republic of Croatia’, Annual Reports 1978–1991. (In Croatian). Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  3. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS): 2002, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia for 2001. CBS, Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  4. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS): 2003, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia for 2002. Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  5. Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS): 2004, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia for 2003. Zagreb, Croatia. Also, available at: http://www.dzs.hr/StatInfo/pdf/statinfo2004.pdf. Last accessed April 04, 2005.
  6. Franić, Z.: 1992a, ‘137Cs in radioactive Fallout in Zagreb’, Croatian Meteorol. J. 27, 63–68.Google Scholar
  7. Franić, Z., Senčar, J. and Bauman, A.: 1992b, ‘Caesium radioactivity in mushrooms in Northwest Croatia’, Periodicum biologorum 94, 115–120.Google Scholar
  8. Franić, Z. and Lokobauer, N.: 1994, ‘Radiocaesium activities in wheat in Croatia’, Arh. Hig. Rada. Toksikol. 45(2), 141–150.Google Scholar
  9. Franić, Z., Marović, G., Lokobauer, N. and Senčar, J.: 1998, ‘Radiocaesium activity concentrations in milk in the Republic of Croatia and dose assessment’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 51(3), 695–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Franić, Z., Lokobauer, N. and Marović, G.: 1999, ‘Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea by 90Sr’, Health Phys. 77(1), 62–66.Google Scholar
  11. Franić, Z., Lokobauer, N. and Marović, G.: 2004, ‘Radiostrontium activity concentrations in milk in the Republic of Croatia for 1961–2001 and dose assessment’, Health Phys. 87(2), 160–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): 1996, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, International Atomic Energy Agency, pp. 181.Google Scholar
  13. Isaksson, M., Erlandsson, B. and Mattsson, S.: 2001, ‘A 10-year study of the 137Cs distribution in soil and a comparison of Cs soil inventory with precipitation-determined deposition’, J. Environ. Radioactivity 55(1), 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Joensen, H. P.: 2001, ‘Modelling Long-Term Variation of Radioactivity in Foodstuffs in the Faroe Islands’, available at http://www.sleipnir.fo/setur/nvd/alisfrodi/geislweb/B21FoMod2.pdf. Last accessed April 04, 2005.
  15. Kovač, J., Cesar, D., Franić, Z., Lokobauer, N., Marović, G. and Maračić. M.: 1993–1998, ‘Results of Environmental Radioactivity Measurements in the Republic of Croatia’, Annual Reports 1992–1997. (In Croatian). Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  16. Lexicographical Institute “Miroslav Krleža”, 1973: Agricultural Encyclopaedia, Article ‘Wheat’ Vol. 3, pp. 6–20. (In Croatian).Google Scholar
  17. Lofti, M., Notaro, M., Cubadda, R., Santaroni, G. P., Azimi-Garakani, D. and Tomassino, L.: 1988, ‘Radioactive Caesium Contents of “Grand Duro” Wheat in Italy’, in: Proceedings of the Italian-Yugoslav Symposium ‘Radiation Protection: Advances in Yugoslavia and Italy’, S. 22–24, Udine, Italy, pp. 399–402.Google Scholar
  18. Lokobauer, N., Bauman, A., Cesar, D. and Petroci, Lj.: 1987, ‘137Cs Levels in Wheat Flour in SR Croatia after the Chernobyl Accident’, in: Proceedings of the XIV Regional Congress of IRPA ‘Current Problems and Concerns in the Field of Radiation Protection’, September 29–October 02, Kupari, Croatia, pp. 105–106.Google Scholar
  19. Marović, G., Franić, Z., Kovač, J., Lokobauer, N. and Maračić, M.: 1999–2002, ‘Results of Environmental Radioactivity Measurements in the Republic of Croatia’, Annual Reports 1998–2001. (In Croatian). Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  20. Mueck, K.: 1993, ‘Influence on Deposition Date and Time Factors on Counter Measures After Large–Scale Nuclear Fallout’, in: Proceedings of the Austrian – Italian – Hungarian Radiation Protection Symposium, April 28–30, Obergurgl, Austria.Google Scholar
  21. Popović, V. (ed).: 1966–1978, ‘Environmental radioactivity in Yugoslavia’, Annual Reports 1965–1977. (In Croatian). Federal Committee for Labour, Health and Social Welfare, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
  22. Rajama, J. and Rantavaara, A.: 1982, ‘Radioactivity in Finnish Cereals from 1962 to 1980’, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  23. Schwaiger, M., Mueck, K., Benesch, T., Feichtinger, J., Hrnecek, E. and Lovranich, E.: 2004, ‘Investigation of food contamination since the Chernobyl fallout in Austria’, Appl. Radiation Isotopes 61(2–3), 357–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Strandberg, M.: 1994, ‘Contamination of Annual Crops’, in: H. Dahlgaard (ed.), Nordic Radioecology, The Transfer of Radionuclides Through Nordic Ecosystems to Man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 185–195.Google Scholar
  25. Szerbin, P., Koblinger-Bokori, E., Koblinger, L., Végvári, I., Ugron, Á., 1999, ‘Caesium-137 migration in Hungarian soils’ Sci. Total Environ. 227(2–3), 215–227.Google Scholar
  26. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR): 1982, ‘Ionizing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects’, United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  27. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR): 1988, ‘Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation’, United Nations, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zdenko Franić
    • 1
  • Gordana Marović
    • 1
  • Nevenka Lokobauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Medical Research and Occupational HealthRadiation Protection UnitZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations