Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 118, Issue 1–3, pp 435–456 | Cite as

Leachate Characterization and Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site

  • Suman MorEmail author
  • Khaiwal Ravindra
  • R. P. Dahiya
  • A. Chandra


Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Gazipur landfill-site and its adjacent area to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentration of various physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) and microbiological parameters (total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC)) were determined in groundwater and leachate samples. The moderately high concentrations of Cl, NO 3, SO2− 4, NH+ 4, Phenol, Fe, Zn and COD in groundwater, likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they proved to be as tracers for groundwater contamination. The effect of depth and distance of the well from the pollution source was also investigated. The presence of TC and FC in groundwater warns for the groundwater quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demand for the proper management of waste in Delhi.


groundwater contamination health risk landfill leachate remedial measure solid waste tracer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abu-Rukah, Y. and Al-Kofahi, O.: 2001, ‘The assessment of the effect of landfill leachate on ground-water quality — a case study’, El-Akader Landfill Site — North Jordan, Arid Environ. 49, 615–630.Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal, A., Singhmar, A., Kulshrestha, M. and Mittal, A. K.: 2005, ‘Municipal solid waste recycling and associated markets in Delhi, India’, Res. Conserv. Recycling 44, 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 1994, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 15th edn., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS): 1991, Indian Standard Specification for Drinking Water, IS 10500, pp.2–4.Google Scholar
  5. Butow, E., Holzbecher, E. and Kob, E.: 1989, Approach to Model the Transport of Leachates from a Landfill Site including Geochemical Processes, Contaminant Transport in Groundwater. Kobus and Kinzelbach, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp.183–190.Google Scholar
  6. Christensen, T. H., Kjeldsen, P., Albrechtsen, H.-J., Heron, G., Nielson, P. H., Bjerg, P. L. and Holm, P. E.: 1994, ‘Attenuation of landfill leachate pollutants in aquifers’, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 119–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen, J. B., Jensen, D. L., Gron, C., Filip, Z. and Christensen, T. H.: 1998, ‘Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater’, Water Res. 32, 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chu, L. M., Cheung, K. C. and Wong, M. H.: 1994, ‘Variations in the chemical properties of landfill leachate’, Environ. Manage. 18, 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark I. and Fritz, P.: 1997, Environmental Isotopes in Hydrology, Lewis, Boca Raton, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Crawford, J. F. and Smith, P. G.: 1985, Landfill Technology, pp.84–85. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  11. DeRosa, E., Rubel, D., Tudino, M., Viale, A. and Lombardo, R. J.: 1996, ‘The leachate composition of an old waste dump connected to groundwater: Influence of the reclamation works’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 40(3), 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durfor, C. N. and Becker, E.: 1964, ‘Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in the US’, US-Geol. Sur. Water Supply Paper 1812, 364.Google Scholar
  13. Ellis, J. A.: 1980, ‘Convenient parameter for tracing leachate from sanitary landfills’, Water Res. 14, 1283–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fatta D., Papadopoulos, A. and Loizidou, M.: 1999, ‘A study on the landfill leachate and its impact on the groundwater quality of the greater area’, Environ. Geochem. Health 21(2), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flyhammar, P.: 1995, ‘Leachate quality and environmental effects at active Swedish municipal landfill’, in: R. Cossu, H. T. Christensen and R. Stegmann (eds), Regulations, Environmental Impact and Aftercare. Proceedings Sardinia ′95, Fifth International Landfill Symposium. Vol. III, Sardinia, Italy, pp.549–557.Google Scholar
  16. Hudak, P. F.: 1998, ‘Groundwater monitoring strategies for variable versus constant contaminant loading functions’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 50, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jawad, A., Al-Shereideh, S. A., Abu-Rukah, Y. and Al Qadat, K.: 1998, ‘Aquifer Ground Water Quality and Flow in the Yarmouk River Basin of Northern Jordan’. Environ. Syst. 26, 265–287.Google Scholar
  18. Loizidou, M. and Kapetanios, E.: 1993, ‘Effect of leachate from landfills on underground water quality’, Sci. Total Environ. 128, 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Looser, M. O., Parriaux, A. and Bensimon, M.: 1999, ‘Landfill underground pollution detection and characterization using inorganic traces’, Water Res. 33, 3609–3616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moo-Young, H., Johnson, B., Johnson. A., Carson, D., Lew, C., Liu, S. and Hancock, K.: 2004, ‘Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: Supporting groundwater modeling efforts’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 96, 283–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mor, S., Ravindra, K., Vischher, A., Dahiya, R. P. and Chandra, A.: 2005a, Municipal Solid Waste Characterisation and its Assessment for Potential Methane Generation at Gazipur Landfill Site, Delhi: A case study. Bioresource Technology, Communicated.Google Scholar
  22. Mor, S., Vischher, A., Ravindra, K., Dahiya, R. P., Chandra, A. and Van Cleemput, O.: 2005b, ‘Induction of enhanced methane oxidation in compost: Temperature and moisture response’, Waste Manage. in press.Google Scholar
  23. Moturi, M. C. Z., Rawat, M. and Subramanian, V.: 2004, ‘Distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in solid waste from selected sites in the industrial belt of Delhi, India’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 95, 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Norusis, M. J. and SPSS Inc., 1997, SPSS for Windows Professional Statistics 7.5, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  25. Olaniya, M. S. and Saxena, K. L.: 1977, ‘Ground water pollution by open refuse dumps at Jaipur’, Ind. J. Environ. Health 19, 176–188.Google Scholar
  26. Pohland, F. G., Cross, W. H., and Gould, J. P.: 1993, ‘Metal speciation and mobility as influenced by landfill disposal practices’, in: H. E. Allen, E. M. Perdue, and D. S. Brown (eds), Metals in Groundwater. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp. 411–429.Google Scholar
  27. Rabinove C. J., Long Ford, R. H. and BrookHart, J. W.: 1958, ‘Saline water resource of North Dakota U.S.’, Geol. Sur. Water Supply Paper 1428, 72.Google Scholar
  28. Ravindra, K. and Garg, V. K.: 2006, ‘Distribution of fluoride in groundwater and its suitability assessment for drinking purpose’, Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 16, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ravindra, K., Ameena, Meenakshi, Monika, Rani and Kaushik, A.: 2003, ‘Seasonal variation in water quality of river Yamuna in Haryana and its ecological best-designated use’, Environ. Monitor. 5, 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rowe, R. K., Quigley, R. Q. and Booker, J. R.: 1995, Clay Barrier Systems for Waste Disposal Facilities, E & FN Spon, London, UK.Google Scholar
  31. Saarela, J., 2003, ‘Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 84, 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stoline, M. R., Passerp, R. N. and Barcelona, M. J.: 1993, ‘Statistical trends in groundwater monitoring data at a landfill site — A case study’, Environ. Monit. Assess. 27(3), 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stuart, M. E. and Klinck, B. A.: 1998, A Catalogue of Leachate Quality from Selected Landfills from Newly Industrialised Countries. British Geological Survey Technical Report WC/99/17.Google Scholar
  34. Tatsi A. A. and Zouboulis, A. I.: 2002, ‘A field investigation of the quantity and quality of leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill in a Mediterranean climate (Thessaloniki, Greece)’, Adv. Environ. Res. 6, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA): 1984, Office of Drinking Water, A Ground Water Protection Strategy for the Environmental Protection Agency, pp.11.Google Scholar
  36. World Health Organization (WHO): 1997, Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, 2nd ed., Vol. 2 Health criteria and other supporting information, World Health organization, Geneva, pp.940–949.Google Scholar
  37. Yanful, E. K., Quigley, R. M. and Nesbitt, H. W.: 1988, ‘Heavy metal migration at a landfill site, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada — 2: Metal Partitioning and Geotechnical Implications’, Appl. Geochem. 3, 623–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suman Mor
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khaiwal Ravindra
    • 2
  • R. P. Dahiya
    • 1
  • A. Chandra
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Energy StudiesIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, Department of ChemistryUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations