Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 118, Issue 1–3, pp 89–112 | Cite as

Distribution and Statistical Analysis of Leachable and Total Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Suez Gulf

  • Ahmed El NemrEmail author
  • Azza Khaled
  • Amany El Sikaily


The concentrations of nine heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pd and Zn) in the labile and total fractions of muddy and sandy sediment samples collected from twelve sites in Suez Gulf during April 1999 were studied to evaluate the pollution status of the Suez Gulf. The enrichment factors (EF) for each element were calculated. There are extremely high concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and slightly concentration of Cr and Cu in both muddy and sandy sediments. The concentration of Zn was moderately high and can be considered as seriously contaminate Metal pollution index (MPI) shows high values ranged between 46 to 156 and 40 to 232 for both sandy and muddy sediments, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals were normalized against iron for total fraction in both of sandy and muddy sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) was studied on the data matrix obtained and represented three-factor model explaining 92.22% for labile and 88.82% for total fractions of muddy sediment. The main source of contamination is the offshore oil fields and industrial wastes. This is largely a result of ineffective and inefficient operation equipment, illegal discharge of dirty ballast water from tankers and lack of supervision and prosecution of offenders.


factor analysis heavy metals leachable muddy sediment pollution assessment sandy sediment Suez Gulf 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed El Nemr
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azza Khaled
    • 1
  • Amany El Sikaily
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental DivisionNational Institute of Oceanography and FisheriesAlexandriaEgypt

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