Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 100, Issue 1–3, pp 129–152 | Cite as

The condition of coral reefs in South Florida (2000) using coral disease and bleaching as indicators

  • Deborah L. Santavy
  • J. Kevin Summers
  • Virginia D. Engle
  • Linda C. Harwell


The destruction of coral reef habitats has occurred at unprecedented levels during the last three decades. Coral disease and bleaching in the Caribbean and South Florida have caused extensive coral mortality with limited recovery, often coral reefs are being replaced with turf algae. Acroporids were once dominant corals and have diminished to the state where they are being considered as endangered species. Our survey assessed the condition of reef corals throughout South Florida. A probability-based design produced unbiased estimates of the spatial extent of ecological condition, measured as the absence or presence and frequency or prevalence of coral diseases and bleaching intensity over large geographic regions. This approach allowed us to calculate a quantifiable level of uncertainty. Coral condition was estimated for 4100 hectares (ha) (or 41.0 km2) of coral reefs in South Florida, including reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), New Grounds, Dry Tortugas National Park (DTNP), and Biscayne National Park (BNP). The absence or presence of coral disease, ‘causal’ coral bleaching, partial bleaching and coral paling were not good indicators of overall coral condition. It was more useful to report the prevalence of anomalies that indicated a compromised condition at both the population and community levels. For example, 79% of the area in South Florida had less than 6% of the coral colonies diseased, whereas only 2.2% (97.15 ha) of the sampled area had a maximum prevalence of 13% diseased coral colonies at any single location. The usefulness of ‘causal bleaching’ might be more important when considering the prevalence of each of the three different states at a single location. For example, paling was observed over the entire area, whereas bleaching and partial bleaching occurred at 19 and 41% of the area, respectively. An index for coral reef condition might integrate the prevalence and species affected by each bleaching state at individual locations. By establishing these baselines, future surveys can examine changes and trends in the spatial distribution of coral conditions in South Florida and able to score the reefs as to their health status.


assessment causal bleaching coral disease coral reefs EMAP Florida Keys monitoring paling reef condition South Florida 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah L. Santavy
    • 1
  • J. Kevin Summers
    • 1
  • Virginia D. Engle
    • 1
  • Linda C. Harwell
    • 1
  1. 1.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology DivisionU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGulf BreezeUSA

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