Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 104, Issue 1–3, pp 155–162

Using the Flow Cytometry to Quantify the Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Water Samples

  • Bing-Mu Hsu
  • Nan-Min Wu
  • Hung-Der Jang
  • Feng-Cheng Shih
  • Min-Tao Wan
  • Chien-Min Kung
Article

Abstract

The flow cytometry (FC) has been used to detect Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts quantitatively and instantaneously in this study. The experimental results showed that FC is potential to become a more precise method for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water. This study also evaluated the staining efficiencies for three commercial antibodies. After staining Cryptosporidium oocysts with direct immunofluorescent antibodies in water samples, two populations were detected in the scatter-plots (FL1 versus SSC) of the FC. The Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts are significantly separated from other particles while stained with direct immunofluorescent antibodies produced by Meridian Diagnostics and WaterborneTM Inc.

Keywords

Cryptosporidium flow cytometry Giardia protozoan parasites 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arrowood, M.J., Hurd, M.R. and Mead, J.R.: 1995, ‘A new method for evaluating experimental cryptosporidial parasite loads using immunofluorencent flow cytometry,’, J. Parasitol. 81(3), 404–409.Google Scholar
  2. Clancy, J.L., Gollnitz, W.D. and Tabib, Z.: 1994, ‘Commercial labs: How accurate are they?,’, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 86(5), 89–97.Google Scholar
  3. Cook, G.C.: 1995, ‘Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infection: Current diagnostic strategies,’, Parasite 2(2), 107–112.Google Scholar
  4. Ferrari, B.C., Vesey, G., Weir, C., Williams, K.L. and Veal, D.A.: 1999, ‘Comparison of Cryptosporidium-specific and Giardia-specific monoclonal antibodies for monitoring water samples,’, Water Res. 33(7), 1611–1617.Google Scholar
  5. Eisenberg, J.N.S., Seto, E.Y.W., Colford, J.M., Olivieri, A. and Spear, R.C.: 1998, ‘An analysis of the Milwaukee cryptosporidiosis outbreak based on a dynamic model of the infection process,’, Epidemiology 9(3), 255–263.Google Scholar
  6. Frost, F.J., Craun, G.F. and Calderon, R.L.: 1996, ‘Waterborne disease surveillance,’, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 88(9), 66–75.Google Scholar
  7. Perz, J.F., Ennever, F.K. and Le Blancq, S.M.: 1998, ‘Cryptosporidium in tap water — Comparison of predicted risks with observed levels of disease,’, Am. J. Epidemiol. 147(3), 289–301.Google Scholar
  8. Teunis, P.F.M., Medema, G.J., Kruidenier, L. and Havelaar, A.H.: 1997, ‘Assessment of the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium or Giardia in drinking water from a surface water source,’, Water Res. 31(6), 1333–1346.Google Scholar
  9. Vesey, G., Deere, D., Weir, C.J., Ashbolt, N., Williams, K.L. and Veal, D.A.: 1997, ‘A simple method for evaluating Cryptosporidium-specific antibodies used in monitoring environmental water samples,’, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25(5), 361–320.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bing-Mu Hsu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nan-Min Wu
    • 2
  • Hung-Der Jang
    • 3
  • Feng-Cheng Shih
    • 2
  • Min-Tao Wan
    • 2
  • Chien-Min Kung
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Bioenvironmental EngineeringChung Yuan Christian UniversityChung-LiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering and HealthYuanpei University of Science and TechnologyHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceYuanpei University of Science and TechnologyHsinchuTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Medical TechnologyYuanpei University of Science and TechnologyHsinchuTaiwan

Personalised recommendations