Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 99, Issue 1–3, pp 105–113 | Cite as

Community Participation in Natural Resources Management: Reality or Rhetoric?

  • Emmanuel MutambaEmail author


In the developing world, the term ‘participation’ has in recent years become a household word in the same way that ‘democracy’ or ‘gender’ have. Development agencies are demanding increased participation in their programmes. The use of the word or its application has become a centre of debate. Due to the difficulties involved in measuring ‘participation’ or indeed determining levels at which participation should take place, who participates and when, many ‘doubting Thomases’ have questioned its effectiveness. It has, however been acknowledged in many areas that popular participation changes policies and enhances management and governance. In complex issues of natural resources management, participatory techniques have helped communities develop collective responsibilities towards management of their resources and projects. This paper discusses the complexities of community participation in natural resources management, ranging from interrelations among stakeholders to resource ownership based on the experiences in the Kasanka Game Management Area (KGMA).

CBNRM community participatory management resources management Zambia 


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  3. IUCN: 1995, Progress Report on the Preparation of a Management Plan for Kasanka National Park and Kafinda Game Management Area.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Green Living Movement (GLM)LusakaZambia

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