Electronic Commerce Research

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 31–51 | Cite as

Virtual business operations, e-commerce & its significance and the case of Turkey: current situation and its potential

Article

Abstract

21st century is the age of high technologies penetrated into business leading to virtual businesses and e-commerce applications combined with electronic business (e-business) structures. Virtual businesses are independent and/or partly dependent organizations that have flexible and agile structures to respond the altering business conditions. Yet, electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the exchange of goods and services over the Internet. Both virtual businesses and e-commerce operations enable organizations to have fluid structures, modify the changing conditions, lower expenses, access to new markets and attain new consumers. The e-commerce applications have also been increasing in Turkey at a great pace but not significantly when compared to the total trade volume. For, the aim of this paper is to focus on the virtual businesses, e-commerce, harmonization of the conventional business structures with e-commerce and emphasize the importance of the e-commerce applications in Turkey resting on dependable national and international publications and data. With respect to the research made, it is possible to state that the e-commerce volume of Turkey is increasing as a remedy to cover the foreign trade deficit, but it is still not sufficient when compared to the total trade volume. Additionally, even though Turkey possesses an efficient e-government mechanism and e-signature law to enhance the volume of its e-commerce, the lack of cooperation among parties and standardization as well as the difficulty in adoption of digital transactions would be issues to be tackled in order to develop e-commerce in Turkey.

Keywords

Virtual business E-commerce Digital structures Trade Economic development Turkey 

References

  1. 1.
    Alhorr, H., Singh, N., & Kim, S. (2010). Ecommerce on the global platform: strategic insights on the localization perspective. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 11(1), 6–13. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azumah, G., Koh, S. C. L., & Maguire, S. (2005). E-organization and its future implication for SMEs. Production Planning & Control, 16(6), 555–562. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barutçu, S. (2007). Attitudes towards mobile marketing tools: a study of Turkish consumers. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 16(1), 26–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barutçu, S. (2010). E-customer satisfaction in the e-tailing industry: an empirical survey for Turkish e-customers. Ege Academic Review, 10(1), 15–35. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bojnec, S., & Fertö, I. (2009). Impact of the Internet on manufacturing trade. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 50(1), 124–132. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brunelle, E. (2009). Do virtual enterprises exist? International Journal of E-Business Management, 3(2), 43–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, M., Cen, A., & Shao, B. B. M. (2003). The implications and impacts of web services to electronic commerce research and practices. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 4(4), 128–139. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clarke, G., & Wallsten, S. (2006). Has the Internet increased trade? Developed and developing country evidence. Economic Inquiry, 44(3), 465–484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coulky, D., & Young, W. (2006). Mentoring in the virtual organization: keys to building successful schools and businesses. Mentoring & Tutoring, 14(4), 433–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D’Atri, A., & Motro, A. (2008). ViruE: a formal model of virtual enterprises for information markets. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 30, 33–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ebrahim, A. N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual teams: a literature review. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 2653–2669. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gökmen, A. (2008). Affective change management and leadership. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on social sciences (Vol. 2, pp. 1–15). Izmir, Turkey. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gökmen, A. (2009). Developments and prospects in egovernmnet implementations in Turkey. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on egovernment and egovernance, Ankara, Turkey. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gökmen, A., & Hamşıoğlu, A. (2010). The etransformation Turkey project and its application in Turkey: possible organizational and managerial challenges. In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on egovernment and egovernance, Antalya, Turkey. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hortensi, G. (2008). Virtual workplace and telecommuting: challenges that redefine the concept of work and workplace. Annals of the Oradea University, 17(4), 269–274. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hwang, W., Junng, H., & Salvendy, G. (2006). Internationalization of e-commerce: a comparison of online shopping preferences among Korean, Turkish and US population. Behaviour & Information Technology, 25(1), 3–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiang, M., & Chi, R. (2001). A framework for analyzing the potential benefits of Internet marketing. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 2(4), 157–163. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kienan, B. (2001). Managing your e-commerce business. Redmond: Microsoft Press. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kırçova, I. (2006). Electronic supplier systems & their advantages in small 6 medium sized enterprises. Istanbul: Istanbul Chamber of Commerce Publications. Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Küçükyılmazlar, A. (2006). Electronic trade guide. Istanbul: Istanbul Chamber of Commerce Publications. Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laudon, K., & Traver, C. (2001). E-COMMERCE. Boston: Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nunamaker, J., Reining, B., & Briggs, R. (2009). Principles for effective virtual teamwork. Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 113–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paulina, B., Cezar, B., & George, C. (2009). New methods regarding the organization and functionality of the business environment in the virtual economy. Annals of the Oradea University, 18(4), 908–913. Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raisinghani, M. S. (2002). Rethinking B2B e-marketplaces and mobile commerce: from information to execution. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 3(2), 86–97. Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi, Y., & Gregory, M. (2005). Emergence of global manufacturing virtual networks and establishments of new manufacturing infrastructure for faster innovation and firm growth. Production Planning & Control, 16(6), 621–631. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shiralkar, P., & Vijayaraman, B. (2003). Digital signature: application development trends in e-business. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), 94–101. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spremic, M., & Hlupic, V. (2007). Development of e-commerce in Croatia: a survey. Information Technology for Development, 13(4), 391–409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stoica, M., & Ghilic-Micu, B. (2009). Virtual organization—cybernetic economic system. Modeling partner selection process. Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, 43(2), 1–11. Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Temiz, D., & Gökmen, A. (2010). The comparative effects of 2001–2002 financial crises and 2008 global crisis on the Turkish economy. International Journal of Economic and Administrative Studies, 2(4), 1–24. Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vilaseca-Requena, J., Torrent-Sellens, J., Meseguer-Artola, A., & Rodriguez-Ardura, I. (2007). An integrated model of the adoption and extent of e-commerce in firms. International Advances in Economic Research, 13(2), 222–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm (2011). Internet World Stats, Usage and Population Statistics. Accessed March 2011.
  32. 32.
    www.kurul.inet-tr.org (2011). Electronic Commerce Coordination Council. Accessed June 2011.
  33. 33.
    www.adalet.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Ministry of Justice. Accessed July 2011.
  34. 34.
    www.dtm.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Prime Ministry—Undersecretariat of Foreign Trade. Accessed June 2011.
  35. 35.
    www.e-ticaret.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Prime Ministry—official e-commerce portal. Accessed June 2011.
  36. 36.
    www.dpt.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Prime Ministry, State Planning Organization. Accessed June 2011.
  37. 37.
    www.bkm.com.tr (2011). Turkish Inter-Bank Credit Cards Center. Accessed June 2011.
  38. 38.
    www.tuik.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Statistical Institute. Accessed June 2011.
  39. 39.
    www.hazine.gov.tr (2011). Turkish Prime Ministry—Undersecretariat of Treasury. Accessed June 2011.
  40. 40.
    www.tcmb.gov.tr (2011). Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Accessed June 2011.
  41. 41.
    www.turksat.com.tr (2011). e-Government Gateway. Accessed May 2011.
  42. 42.
    Yao, J. T. (2004). Ecommerce adoption of insurance companies in New Zealand. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 5(1), 54–61. Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhu, L., & Thatcher, S. (2010). National information ecology: a new institutional economics perspective on global e-commerce adoption. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 11(1), 53–73. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International TradeÇankaya UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations