Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Complete genomic sequence of Noni mosaic virus (NoMV) associated with a mosaic disease in Morinda citrifolia L.

  • 27 Accesses


An outbreak of a virus-like disease has caused severe damage to noni plants (Morinda citrifolia L.) in Xishuangbanna area of Yunnan province in southwest China since 2015. The diseased plants displayed typical mosaic symptom with light and dark green patches on leaves. Flexuous filamentous virus particles of about 800 nm in length were observed from the leaf saps by transmission electron microscope. Illuemina transcriptomic sequencing further revealed the presence of a potyvirus and its near complete genome was obtained from de novo assembly. The complete genome of 9659 nts was obtained by Sanger sequencing of eight amplicons generate by RT-PCR and 5′ and 3’ RACE. BLASTp analysis of the polyprotein sequence showed that the virus was most closely related to Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV), but these two viruses only shared 50.7% amino acid sequence similarity. Both phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences indicated that this virus is a member of genus Potyvirus. However, the low sequence homology with all known potyviruses established this virus as a new species in the genus, tentatively named as Noni mosaic virus (NoMV). Our field surveys showed that 100% of the symptomatic samples and 28.57% of the asymptomatic samples were infected with this novel potyvirus. Aphids collected from diseased leaves were also detected carrying the virus and aphid transmission test confirmed it can transmit the NoMV. In summary, our data indicated that a novel species of potyvirus, NoMV, is prevalent in Yunnan, China and is associated with an emerging mosaic disease on M. citrifolia.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Adams, M. J., Antoniw, J. F., & Fauquet, C. M. (2005). Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 150, 459–479.

  2. Ahmad, A. N., Daud, Z. A. M., & Ismail, A. (2016). Review on potential therapeutic effect of Morinda Citrifolia, L. Current Opinion in Food Science, 8, 62–67.

  3. Anders, S., Pyl, P. T., & Huber, W. (2015). HTSeq--a Python framework to work with high-throughput sequencing data. Bioinformatics, 31(2), 166–169.

  4. Cao, M., Zhang, S., Li, M., Liu, Y., Dong, P., Li, S., Kuang, M., Li, R., & Zhou, Y. (2019). Discovery of four novel viruses associated with flower yellowing disease of green Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum Armatum) by virome analysis. Viruses, 11(8), 696.

  5. Cui, X., Yaghmaiean, H., Wu, G., Wu, X., Chen, X., Thorn, G., & Wang, A. (2017). The C-terminal region of the Turnip mosaic virus P3 protein is essential for viral infection via targeting P3 to the viral replication complex. Virology, 510, 147–155.

  6. Diaz-Lara, A., Navarro, B., Di Serio, F., Stevens, K., Hwang, M. S., Kohl, J., Vu, S. T., Falk, B. W., Golino, D., & Al Rwahnih, M. (2019). Two novel negative-sense RNA viruses infecting grapevine are members of a newly proposed genus within the family Phenuiviridae. Viruses, 11(8), 685.

  7. Gan, B. C., & He, M. J. (2004). The planting and use of Morinda citrifolia. Forest By-Product and Speciality in China, 2, 7–9.

  8. Gong, D., Wang, J. H., Lin, Z. S., Zhang, S. Y., Zhang, Y. L., Yu, N. T., Xiong, Z., & Liu, Z. X. (2011). Genomic sequencing and analysis of Chilli ringspot virus, a novel potyvirus. Virus Genes, 43(3), 439–444.

  9. Haas, B. J., Papanicolaou, A., Yassour, M., Grabherr, M., Blood, P. D., Bowden, J., Couger, M. B., Eccles, D., Li, B., Lieber, M., MacManes, M. D., Ott, M., Orvis, J., Pochet, N., Strozzi, F., Weeks, N., Westerman, R., William, T., Dewey, C. N., Henschel, R., LeDuc, R. D., Friedman, N., & Regev, A. (2013). De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-seq using the trinity platform for reference generation and analysis. Nature Protocols, 8(8), 1494–1512.

  10. Hall, T. A. (2013). BioEdit, version 7.2.5; software for biological sequence alignment. Carlsbad, CA, USA.: Ibis Biosciences.

  11. Hao, X., Zhang, W., Zhao, F., Liu, Y., Qian, W., Wang, Y., Wang, L., Zeng, J., Yang, Y., & Wang, X. (2018). Discovery of plant viruses from tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) by metagenomic sequencing. Front Microbiology, 9, 2175.

  12. Huang, C. H., Tai, C. H., Lin, R. S., Chang, C. J., & Jan, F. J. (2019). Biological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of a new potyvirus, Dendrobium chlorotic mosaic virus, infecting Dendrobium orchid. Plant Disease, 103(7), 1605–1612.

  13. López-Moya, J. J., Wang, R. Y., & Pirone, T. P. (1999). Context of the coat protein DAG motif affects potyvirus transmissibility by aphids. The Journal of General Virology, 80(Pt 12), 3281–3288.

  14. Plisson, C., Drucker, M., Blanc, S., German-Retana, S., Le, G. O., Thomas, D., & Bron, P. (2003). Structural characterization of HC-pro, a plant virus multifunctional protein. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278(26), 23753–23761.

  15. Qian, Y., Xu, Y., Zhou, Q., & Zhou, X. (2014). Application of next-generation sequencing technology for plant virus identification. Scientia Sinica Vitae, 44(4), 351–363.

  16. Revers, F., & Garcã-A, J. A. (2015). Molecular biology of potyviruses. Advances in Virus Research, 92, 101–199.

  17. Rott, M. E., Kesanakurti, P., Berwarth, C., Rast, H., Boyes, I., Phelan, J., & Jelkmann, W. (2018). Discovery of negative-sense RNA viruses in trees infected with apple rubbery wood disease by next-generation sequencing. Plant Disease, 102(7), 1254–1263.

  18. Seo, J. K., Kang, S. H., Seo, B. Y., Jung, J. K., & Kim, K. H. (2010). Mutational analysis of interaction between coat protein and helper component-proteinase of Soybean mosaic virus involved in aphid transmission. Molecular Plant Pathology, 11(2), 265–276.

  19. Shan, H., Pasin, F., Tzanetakis, I. E., Simón-Mateo, C., García, J. A., & Rodamilans, B. (2018). Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host. Molecular Plant Pathology, 19(6), 1504–1510.

  20. Sheveleva, A., Kudryavtseva, A., Speranskaya, A., Belenikin, M., Melnikova, N., & Chirkov, S. (2013). Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing. Virus Genes, 47(2), 385–388.

  21. Stenger, D. C., Hein, G. L., Gildow, F. E., Horken, K. M., & French, R. (2005). Plant virus HC-pro is a determinant of eriophyid mite transmission. Journal of Virology, 79(14), 9054–9061.

  22. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., & Kumar, S. (2013). MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol., 30(12), 2725–2729.

  23. Torres, M. A. O., Mondêgo-Oliveira, R., De-Sá, J. C., Rocha, A. L., & Abreu-Silva, A. L. (2017). One plant, many uses: A review of the pharmacological applications of morinda citrifolia. Phytotherapy Research, 31(2), 971–979.

  24. Trapnell, C., Pachter, L., & Salzberg, S. L. (2009). TopHat: Discovering splice junctions with RNA-Seq. Bioinformatics, 25(9), 1105–1111.

  25. Vozárová, Z., Glasa, M., & Šubr, Z. W. (2017). Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection. Acta Virologica, 61(4), 492–494.

  26. Wang, Y. F., Liu, Y. X., & Cai, Z. Y. (2015). Biological characteristics of noni anthracnose. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences, 42(7), 60–63.

  27. Wylie, S. J., Adams, M., Chalam, C., Kreuze, J., López-Moya, J. J., Ohshima, K., Praveen, S., Rabenstein, F., Stenger, D., Wang, A., & Zerbini, F. M. (2017). ICTV report consortium, ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Potyviridae. The Journal of General Virology, 98, 352–354.

  28. Yang, K., Shen, W. T., Li, Y., Li, Z. P., Miao, W. G., Wang, A. M., & Cui, H. G. (2019). Areca palm necrotic ringspot virus, classified within a recently proposed genus Arepavirus of the family Potyviridae, is associated with necrotic ringspot disease in areca palm. Phytopathology, 109(5), 887–894.

  29. Yu, N. T., Xie, H. M., Zhang, Y. L., Wang, J. H., Xiong, Z., & Liu, Z. X. (2019). Independent modulation of individual genomic component transcription and a cis-acting element related to high transcriptional activity in a multipartite DNA virus. BMC Genomics, 20(1), 573.

Download references


This study was funded by the Major Science and Technology Program of Hainan Province (grant number ZDKJ2017003), Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CSTC (No. CSTC-QN201704) and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Tree Research, Institute of Fruit Tree Research, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No. 2017B030314113).

Author information

Correspondence to Nai-Tong Yu or Yan Yang or Zhi-Xin Liu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This manuscript did not involve any human participants, and/ or animals.

Electronic supplementary material


(DOCX 14 kb)


(DOCX 15 kb)


(DOCX 15 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yu, N., Cai, Z., Xiong, Z. et al. Complete genomic sequence of Noni mosaic virus (NoMV) associated with a mosaic disease in Morinda citrifolia L.. Eur J Plant Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-01948-4

Download citation


  • Noni mosaic virus
  • Potyvirus
  • Complete genome
  • Morinda citrifolia L
  • Illumina transcriptomic sequencing