We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.


Evidence of seed transmission of Banana bract mosaic virus in Musa synthetic diploid H-201, a possible threat to banana breeding

  • 20 Accesses


Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a serious constraint in Musa spp. and Musa textilis causing enormous economic losses to growers. The distribution of the virus in various parts of the seeds, flower and leaf tissues of seedlings from banana plants of a synthetic diploid, H-201, naturally infected in the field was determined by Plate-trapped antigen coating enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA), reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and sequencing. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR results revealed the presence of BBrMV in embryo, endosperm and seed coat of seeds from infected plants. Nucleotide sequencing of the RT-PCR amplicons confirmed the BBrMV infection in seed. Quantification of BBrMV in various parts of seed by qRT-PCR using SYBR Green chemistry revealed that the viral load was maximal in the endosperm followed by seed coat and embryo. In a seed growth test, thirteen seedlings, that were raised from embryos of infected seeds in vitro and twenty seedlings raised from infected seeds in pots, expressed typical symptoms of bract mosaic virus disease and were confirmed RT-PCR positive for the virus. This finding will have significant implications in banana breeding programmes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Adams, D. B., & Kuhn, C. W. (1977). Seed transmission of peanut mottle virus in peanuts. Phytopathology, 67, 1126–1129.

  2. Asif, M. J., Mak, C., & Othman, R. Y. (2001). In vitro zygotic embryo culture of wild Musa acuminata ssp. Malaccensis and factors affecting germination and seedling growth. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 67, 267–270.

  3. Balasubramanian, V., & Selvarajan, R. (2012). Complete genome sequence of a Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) isolate infecting the French plantain cv Nendran in India. Archives of Virology, 157, 397–400.

  4. Balasubramanian, V., & Selvarajan, R. (2014). Genetic diversity and recombination analysis in the coat protein gene of Banana bract mosaic virus. Virus Genes, 48(3), 509–517.

  5. Balasubramanian, V., Sukanya, R. S., Anuradha, C., & Selvarajan, R. (2014). Population structure of banana bract mosaic virus reveals recombination and negative selection in the helper component protease (HC-Pro) gene. Virus Disease, 25(4), 460–466.

  6. Bashar T. (2015). Characterization of seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus in soybean. PhD Thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, pp.1–118.

  7. Bateson, M. F., & Dale, J. L. (1995). Banana bract mosaic virus: characterization using potyvirus specific degenerate PCR primers. Archives of Virology, 140, 515–527.

  8. Bowers Jr., G. R., & Goodman, R. M. (1979). Soybean mosaic virus: infection of soybean seed parts and seed transmission. Phytopathology, 69, 569–572.

  9. Daniells, J., Thomas, J. E., & Smith, M. (1995). Seed transmission of banana streak virus confirmed. Infomusa, 4, 1–7.

  10. Demski, J. W., Reddy, D. V. R., Sowell Jr., G., & Bays, D. (1984). Peanut stripe virus—a new seed- borne potyvirus from China infecting groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Annals of Applied Biology, 105, 495–501.

  11. Hoch, H. C., & Provvident, R. (1978). Ultrastructural localization of bean common mosaic virus in dormant and germinating seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytopathology, 68, 327–330.

  12. Johansen, E., Edwards, M. C., & Hampton, R. O. (1994). Seed transmission of viruses: current perspectives. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 32, 363–386.

  13. Kiranmai, G., Lavakumar, P., Hema, M., Venkatramana, M., Kirshna prasadji, J., Mandheva, R., & Sreenivasalu, P. (2005). Partial characterization of a potyvirus causing bract mosaic of banana in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Virology, 16, 7–11.

  14. Krishnamoorthy, V. (2002). Breeding for resistance to Sigatoka leaf spot and nematodes in banana (Musa spp.). Ph.D. (Hort.) Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

  15. Kumar, N. (2006). Problems and prospects of banana breeding in India. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 1(2), 77–94.

  16. Magnaye, L. V., & Espino, R. R. C. (1990). Note: Banana bract mosaic, a new disease of banana I. symptomatology. Philippine Agriculturist, 73, 55–59.

  17. Maule, A. J., & Wang, D. W. (1996). Seed transmission of plant viruses: a lesson in biological complexity. Trends in Microbiology, 4, 153–158.

  18. Munez, A.R. (1992). Symptomatology, transmission and Purification of Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV) in ‘Giant Cavendish’ Banana. Faculty of Graduate School. University of Philippines, Los Ban˜ os, pp. 1–57.

  19. Roberts, I. M., Wang, D., Thomas, C. L., & Maule, A. J. (2003). Pea seed-borne mosaic virus seed transmission exploits novel symplastic pathways to infect the pea embryo and is, in part, dependent upon chance. Protoplasma, 222, 31–43.

  20. Rodoni, B. C., Ahlawat, Y. S., Varma, A., Dale, J. L., & Harding, R. M. (1997). Identification and characterization of banana bract mosaic virus in India. Plant Disease, 81, 669–672.

  21. Rodoni, B. C., Dale, J. L., & Harding, R. M. (1999). Characterization and expression of the coat protein coding region of banana bract mosaic potyvirus, development of diagnostic assays and detection of the virus in banana plants from five countries in Southeast Asia. Archives of Virology, 14, 1725–1737.

  22. Ryder, E. J. (1973). Seed transmission of LMV in mosaic resistant lettuce. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 98, 610–614.

  23. Sastry, K. S. (2013). Seed-borne plant virus diseases. Springer.

  24. Sathiamoorthy, S. (1987). Studies on male breeding potential and certain aspects of breeding banana, Ph.D. thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.

  25. Selvarajan, R., & Balasubramanian, V. (2008). Banana viruses. In G. P. Rao, A. Myrta, & K.-s. Ling (Eds.), Characterization, diagnosis and management of plant viruses. Vol.2 (pp. 109–124). Texas: Studium Press LLC (ISBN: 1-933699-32-9).

  26. Selvarajan, R., & Balasubramanian, V. (2017). First report of banana bract mosaic virus in banana in Assam, India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(2), 384.

  27. Selvarajan, R., & Jeyabaskaran, K. J. (2006). Effect of banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) on growth and yield of cultivar Nendran (plantain, AAB). Indian Phytopathology, 59, 496–500.

  28. Selvarajan, R., Balasubramanian, V., Jeyabaskaran, K. J., Pandey, S. D., & Mustaffa, M. M. (2009). Management of banana bract mosaic disease through higher dose of fertilizer application in banana cv. Ney Poovan (AB). Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66(3), 301–305.

  29. Selvarajan, R., Balasubramanian, V., Jeyabaskaran, K. J., & Mustaffa, M. M. (2017). Yield loss management through fertilizers in Banana bract mosaic virus affected French plantain cv. Nendran (AAB). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 87(8), 1055–1061.

  30. Simmons, H. E., Dunham, J. P., Zinn, K. E., Munkvold, G. P., Holmes, E. C., & Stephenson, A. G. (2013). Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): Vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections. Virus Research, 176, 259–264.

  31. Thomas, J. E., Geering, A. D. W., Gambley, C. F., Kessling, A. F., & White, M. (1997). Purification, properties and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus. Phytopathology, 87, 698–705.

  32. Thomas, J. E., Selvarajan, R., Iskara-Caruana, M. L., Magnaye, L. V., & Jones, D. R. (2018). Diseases caused by viruses; bract mosaic. In D. R. Jones (Ed.), Handbook of diseases of banana, abaca and enset. CABI 632.

Download references


This research was financially supported by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the Director, ICAR-NRCB, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu for providing facilities.

Author information

Correspondence to Ramasamy Selvarajan.

Ethics declarations

The authors made sure our manuscript complies to the Ethical Rules applicable for this journal.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Selvarajan, R., Balasubramanian, V., Priyanka, P. et al. Evidence of seed transmission of Banana bract mosaic virus in Musa synthetic diploid H-201, a possible threat to banana breeding. Eur J Plant Pathol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-019-01924-7

Download citation


  • Potyvirus
  • Banana
  • Seed transmission
  • Banana bract mosaic virus
  • RT-PCR