Morphological and molecular description of Longidorus behshahrensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from natural forests of Abbas Abad, north of Iran
- 33 Downloads
Longidorus behshahrensis n. sp. is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. It was recovered from the rhizosphere of a wild cherry tree in Mazandaran province, northeastern Iran. The new species is characterized by having 6.8–8.4 mm long females, lip region separated from the rest of the body by a shallow depression, amphidial fovea pocket shaped not bilobed, guiding ring at 25–31 μm from the anterior end, 81–91 and 51–63 μm long odontostyle and odontophore, respectively, 109–130 μm long pharyngeal bulb, didelphic-amphidelphic reproductive system with long tubular bipartite uteri with sperm, vulva at 44–54%, tail bluntly conical, dorsally convex, ventrally concave with widely rounded terminus, hyaline region with discernible radial lines; males common with 50–60 μm long spicules and 9–11 ventromedian single supplements. Only the two latter juvenile developmental stages were recovered for the new species. Codes for identifying the new species are A3-B1-C23-D2-E1-F34-G23-H2-I2. Morphologically, the new species comes close to eight known species of the genus namely L. artemisiae, L. dunensis, L. elongatus, L. euonymus, L. goodeyi, L. iranicus, L. protae and L. tabrizicus. The morphological differences of the new species and the aforementioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using LSU rDNA D2-D3 sequences, the position of the new species among closely related species was not resolved due to polytomy. In ITS1 phylogeny, the new species formed a clade with L. distinctus.
KeywordsBayesian ITS1 LSU rDNA D2-D3 Mazandaran province Phylogeny Taxonomy
We acknowledge the Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University (Iran) and Tarbiat Modares University (Iran) for their financial support. The study was partly supported by BAS, ANIDIV3 project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors certify that they do not have any conflict of interest, the presented data are original and the described species is not published, and is not under evaluation for publication elsewhere, all prevailing local, national and international regulations and conventions, and normal scientific ethical practices, have been respected. They also certify that the final version of this manuscript has been reviewed by all authors.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
No specific permits were required for this study. The soil samples analyzed in this study were obtained in public areas, forests, and grasslands, that are not under protection.
The authors certify that they have accepted the principles of ethical standards and that guidelines of professional conduct have been followed. The funders had no role in designing of this study, collecting and analyzing of the data, preparing the manuscript and are not involved in evaluating or publishing process of this research.
- Archidona-Yuste, A., Navas-Cortés, J. A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Palomares-Rius, J. E., & Castillo, P. (2016). Unravelling the biodiversity and molecular phylogeny of needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in olive and a description of six new species. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Archidona-Yuste, A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. C., Castillo, P., & Palomares-Rius, J. E. (2019). Molecular phylogenetic analysis and comparative morphology reveals the diversity and distribution of needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from Spain. Contributions to Zoology, 88, 1–41 https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-20191345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brinkman, H., Loof, P. A. A., & Barbez, D. (1987). Longidorus dunensis n. sp. and L. kuiperi n. sp. from the sand dune coastal region of the Netherlands (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Revue de Nématologie, 10, 299–308.Google Scholar
- Chen, Q., Hooper, D. J., Loof, P. A. A., & Xu, J. (1997). A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Fundamental & Applied Nematology, 20, 15–28.Google Scholar
- De Grisse, A. T. (1969). Redescription ou modifications de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude des nematodes phytoparasitaires. Mededelingen Rijksfakulteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent, 34, 351–369.Google Scholar
- De Man, J. G. (1876). Onderzoekingen over vrij in de aarde levende nematoden. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging, 279–196.Google Scholar
- Decraemer, W., & Chaves, E. (2012). Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. In R. H. Manzanilla-Lopez & N. Marbán-Mendoza (Eds.), Practical plant nematology (pp. 579–617). Bibliotheca Basica de Agricultura: Montecillo.Google Scholar
- Giti, M., Kashi, L., & Pedram, M. (2019). Data of an Iranian population of L. proximus Sturhan & Argo, 1983, with taxonomic revision of L. israelensis Peneva, Orion, Shlevin, bar-Eyal & Brown, 1998 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and proposal for a new synonymy. Journal of Nematology, 51, e2019–e2054. https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2019-054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hunt, D. J. (1993). Aphelenchida, longidoridae and trichodoridae, their systematics and bionomics. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
- Lamberti, F., & Bleve-Zacheo, T. (1977). Two new species of Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 5, 73–83.Google Scholar
- Lamberti, F., Choleva, B., & Agostinelli, A. (1983). Longidoridae from Bulgaria (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) with description of three new species of Longidorus and two new species of Xiphinema. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11, 49–72.Google Scholar
- Lazarova, S. S., Elshishka, M., Radoslavov, G., Lozanova, L., Hristov, P., Mladenov, A., Zheng, J., Fanelli, E., De Luca, F., & Peneva, V. K. (2019). Molecular and morphological characterization of Longidorus polyae sp. n. and L. pisi Edward, Misra & Singh, 1964 (Dorylaimida, Longidoridae) from Bulgaria. Zookeys, 830, 75–98. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.830.32188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Larget, B., & Simon, D. L. (1999). Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16, 750–759. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mali, V. R., & Hooper, D. J. (1973). Observations on Longidorus euonymus n. sp. & Xiphinema vuittenezi Luc et al., 1964 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) associated with spindle trees infected with euonymus mosaic virus in Czechoslovakia. Nematologica, 19, 459–467. https://doi.org/10.1163/187529273X00457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Micoletzky, H. (1922). Die freilebenden Erd-Nematoden. Arch. Naturgesch. Berlin (1921) 87. Abt, A 8/9, 1–650.Google Scholar
- Niknam, G., Pedram, M., Nejad, E. G., Ye, W., Robbins, R. T., & Maafi, Z. T. (2010). Morphological and molecular characterization of Longidorus tabrizicus sp. n. and L. sturhani Rubtsova, Subbotin, Brown & Moens, 2001 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from North-Western Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology, 18, 127–140.Google Scholar
- Nunn, G. B. (1992). Nematode molecular evolution and investigation of evolutionary patterns among nematodes based on DNA sequences. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
- Nylander, J. A. A. (2004). MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
- Pedram, M. (2018). Nematodes of the family Longidoridae. In: Ghaderi, R., Kashi, L. & Karegar, A. (Eds). Plant-parasitic nematodes in Iran. Science Reference in collaboration with the Iranian Society of Nematology, 627–667. (in Persian).Google Scholar
- Roca, F., Pereira, M. J., & Lamberti, F. (1989). Longidorus alvegus sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17, 1–4.Google Scholar
- Rubtsova, T. V., Chizhov, V. N., & Subbotin, S. A. (1999). Longidorus artemisiae sp. n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from roots of Artemisia sp., Rostov region, Russia. Russian Journal of Nematology, 1999, 7(1), 33–38.Google Scholar
- Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., & Kumar, S. (2011). MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Thorne, G., & Allen, M. W. (1950). Paratylenchus hamatus n. sp. and Xiphinema index n. sp., two nematodes associated with fig roots, with a note on Paratylenchus anceps cobb. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 17, 27–35.Google Scholar
- Wyss, U. (2010). Feeding behavior of plant-parasitic nematodes. In D. L. Lee (Ed.), The biology of nematodes (pp. 462–513). Boca Ratón: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar