Advertisement

Morphological and molecular description of Longidorus behshahrensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from natural forests of Abbas Abad, north of Iran

  • Shahrbanou Bakhshi Amrei
  • Vlada Peneva
  • Farshad Rakhshandehroo
  • Majid PedramEmail author
Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Longidorus behshahrensis n. sp. is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. It was recovered from the rhizosphere of a wild cherry tree in Mazandaran province, northeastern Iran. The new species is characterized by having 6.8–8.4 mm long females, lip region separated from the rest of the body by a shallow depression, amphidial fovea pocket shaped not bilobed, guiding ring at 25–31 μm from the anterior end, 81–91 and 51–63 μm long odontostyle and odontophore, respectively, 109–130 μm long pharyngeal bulb, didelphic-amphidelphic reproductive system with long tubular bipartite uteri with sperm, vulva at 44–54%, tail bluntly conical, dorsally convex, ventrally concave with widely rounded terminus, hyaline region with discernible radial lines; males common with 50–60 μm long spicules and 9–11 ventromedian single supplements. Only the two latter juvenile developmental stages were recovered for the new species. Codes for identifying the new species are A3-B1-C23-D2-E1-F34-G23-H2-I2. Morphologically, the new species comes close to eight known species of the genus namely L. artemisiae, L. dunensis, L. elongatus, L. euonymus, L. goodeyi, L. iranicus, L. protae and L. tabrizicus. The morphological differences of the new species and the aforementioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using LSU rDNA D2-D3 sequences, the position of the new species among closely related species was not resolved due to polytomy. In ITS1 phylogeny, the new species formed a clade with L. distinctus.

Keywords

Bayesian ITS1 LSU rDNA D2-D3 Mazandaran province Phylogeny Taxonomy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University (Iran) and Tarbiat Modares University (Iran) for their financial support. The study was partly supported by BAS, ANIDIV3 project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors certify that they do not have any conflict of interest, the presented data are original and the described species is not published, and is not under evaluation for publication elsewhere, all prevailing local, national and international regulations and conventions, and normal scientific ethical practices, have been respected. They also certify that the final version of this manuscript has been reviewed by all authors.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

No specific permits were required for this study. The soil samples analyzed in this study were obtained in public areas, forests, and grasslands, that are not under protection.

Informed consent

The authors certify that they have accepted the principles of ethical standards and that guidelines of professional conduct have been followed. The funders had no role in designing of this study, collecting and analyzing of the data, preparing the manuscript and are not involved in evaluating or publishing process of this research.

Supplementary material

10658_2019_1884_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (550 kb)
ESM 1 The LSU Bayesian tree inferred using maximal number of available data. This tree is used to infer a pruned smaller LSU tree. (JPG 550 kb)

References

  1. Álvarez-Ortega, S., & Pena-Sañtiago, R. (2012). Nematodes of the order Dorylaimida from Andalucía Oriental, Spain. Nevadanema nevadense gen. n., sp. n. (Qudsianematidae) from Sierra Nevada National Park. Nematology, 14, 249–264.  https://doi.org/10.1163/138855411X589309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archidona-Yuste, A., Navas-Cortés, J. A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Palomares-Rius, J. E., & Castillo, P. (2016). Unravelling the biodiversity and molecular phylogeny of needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in olive and a description of six new species. PLoS One.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archidona-Yuste, A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. C., Castillo, P., & Palomares-Rius, J. E. (2019). Molecular phylogenetic analysis and comparative morphology reveals the diversity and distribution of needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from Spain. Contributions to Zoology, 88, 1–41  https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-20191345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barsalote, E. M., Pham, H. T., Lazarova, S., Peneva, V., & Zheng, J. (2018). Description of Longidorus cheni sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from China. Zookeys, 744, 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.744.23265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayat, M., Namiranian, M., & Zobeiri, M. (2013). Productivity and optimal management of the uneven-aged hardwood forests of Hyrcania. European Journal of Forest Research, 132, 851–864.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-013-0714-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brinkman, H., Loof, P. A. A., & Barbez, D. (1987). Longidorus dunensis n. sp. and L. kuiperi n. sp. from the sand dune coastal region of the Netherlands (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Revue de Nématologie, 10, 299–308.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, Q., Hooper, D. J., Loof, P. A. A., & Xu, J. (1997). A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Fundamental & Applied Nematology, 20, 15–28.Google Scholar
  8. Cohn, E. (1970). Observations on the feeding and symptomatology of Xiphinema and Longidorus on selected host roots. Journal of Nematology, 2, 167–173.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. De Grisse, A. T. (1969). Redescription ou modifications de quelques techniques utilisées dans l’étude des nematodes phytoparasitaires. Mededelingen Rijksfakulteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent, 34, 351–369.Google Scholar
  10. De Man, J. G. (1876). Onderzoekingen over vrij in de aarde levende nematoden. Tijdschrift der Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging, 279–196.Google Scholar
  11. Decraemer, W., & Chaves, E. (2012). Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. In R. H. Manzanilla-Lopez & N. Marbán-Mendoza (Eds.), Practical plant nematology (pp. 579–617). Bibliotheca Basica de Agricultura: Montecillo.Google Scholar
  12. Gharibzadeh, F., Pourjam, E., & Pedram, M. (2018). Description of Longidorus azarbaijanensis n. sp. (Dorylaimida: Longidoridae) from Iran. Journal of Nematology, 50, 207–218.  https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2018-009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Giti, M., Kashi, L., & Pedram, M. (2019). Data of an Iranian population of L. proximus Sturhan & Argo, 1983, with taxonomic revision of L. israelensis Peneva, Orion, Shlevin, bar-Eyal & Brown, 1998 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and proposal for a new synonymy. Journal of Nematology, 51, e2019–e2054.  https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2019-054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hooper, D. J. (1961). A redescription of Longidorus elongatus (de Man, 1876) Thome & Swanger, 1936 (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) and descriptions of five new species of Longidona from Great Britain. Nematologica, 6, 237–257.  https://doi.org/10.1163/187529261X00072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hunt, D. J. (1993). Aphelenchida, longidoridae and trichodoridae, their systematics and bionomics. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  16. Huson, D. H., & Scornavacca, C. (2012). Dendroscope 3: an interactive tool for rooted phylogenetic trees and networks. Systematic Biology, 61, 1061–1067.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys062.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Katoh, K., & Standley, D. M. (2013). MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 772–780.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Kiontke, K., Gavin, N. P., Raynes, Y., Roehrig, C., Piano, F., & Fitch, D. H. (2004). Caenorhabditis phylogeny predicts convergence of hermaphroditism and extensive intron loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 9003–9008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lamberti, F., & Bleve-Zacheo, T. (1977). Two new species of Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Italy. Nematologia Mediterranea, 5, 73–83.Google Scholar
  20. Lamberti, F., Choleva, B., & Agostinelli, A. (1983). Longidoridae from Bulgaria (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) with description of three new species of Longidorus and two new species of Xiphinema. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11, 49–72.Google Scholar
  21. Lazarova, S. S., Elshishka, M., Radoslavov, G., Lozanova, L., Hristov, P., Mladenov, A., Zheng, J., Fanelli, E., De Luca, F., & Peneva, V. K. (2019). Molecular and morphological characterization of Longidorus polyae sp. n. and L. pisi Edward, Misra & Singh, 1964 (Dorylaimida, Longidoridae) from Bulgaria. Zookeys, 830, 75–98.  https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.830.32188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Larget, B., & Simon, D. L. (1999). Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16, 750–759.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loof, P. A. A., & Coomans, A. (1972). The oesophageal gland nuclei of Longidoridae (Dorylaimida). Nematologica, 18, 213–233.  https://doi.org/10.1163/187529272X00458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loof, P. A., & Chen, Q. W. (1999). A revised polytomous key for the identification of species of the genus Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922 (Nematoda: Dorylaimoidea). Supplement 1. Nematology, 1, 55–59.  https://doi.org/10.1163/156854199507974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luc, M., Lima, M. B., Weischer, B., & Flegg, J. J. M. (1964). Xiphinema vuittenezi n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae). Nematologica, 10, 151–163.  https://doi.org/10.1163/187529264X00781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mali, V. R., & Hooper, D. J. (1973). Observations on Longidorus euonymus n. sp. & Xiphinema vuittenezi Luc et al., 1964 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) associated with spindle trees infected with euonymus mosaic virus in Czechoslovakia. Nematologica, 19, 459–467.  https://doi.org/10.1163/187529273X00457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Micoletzky, H. (1922). Die freilebenden Erd-Nematoden. Arch. Naturgesch. Berlin (1921) 87. Abt, A 8/9, 1–650.Google Scholar
  28. Niknam, G., Pedram, M., Nejad, E. G., Ye, W., Robbins, R. T., & Maafi, Z. T. (2010). Morphological and molecular characterization of Longidorus tabrizicus sp. n. and L. sturhani Rubtsova, Subbotin, Brown & Moens, 2001 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from North-Western Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology, 18, 127–140.Google Scholar
  29. Nunn, G. B. (1992). Nematode molecular evolution and investigation of evolutionary patterns among nematodes based on DNA sequences. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  30. Nylander, J. A. A. (2004). MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  31. Pedram, M. (2018). Nematodes of the family Longidoridae. In: Ghaderi, R., Kashi, L. & Karegar, A. (Eds). Plant-parasitic nematodes in Iran. Science Reference in collaboration with the Iranian Society of Nematology, 627–667. (in Persian).Google Scholar
  32. Robbins, R. T., Brown, D. J. F., Halbrendt, J. M., & Vrain, T. C. (1995). Compendium of Longidorus juvenile stages with observations on L. pisi, L. taniwha, and L. diadecturus (Nematoda: Longidoridae). Systematic Parasitology, 32, 33–52.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roca, F., Pereira, M. J., & Lamberti, F. (1989). Longidorus alvegus sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from Portugal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17, 1–4.Google Scholar
  34. Ronquist, F., & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572–1574.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rubtsova, T. V., Chizhov, V. N., & Subbotin, S. A. (1999). Longidorus artemisiae sp. n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from roots of Artemisia sp., Rostov region, Russia. Russian Journal of Nematology, 1999, 7(1), 33–38.Google Scholar
  36. Silvestro, D., & Michalak, I. (2011). raxmlGUI: a graphical frontend for RAxML. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 12, 335–337.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-011-0056-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sturhan, D., & Barooti, S. H. (1983). Longidorus iranicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Systematic Parasitology, 5, 21–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00010982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Subbotin, S., Halford, P. D., Warry, A., & Perry, R. N. (2000). Variations in ribosomal DNA sequences and phylogeny of Globodera parasitising solanaceous plants. Nematology, 2, 591–604.  https://doi.org/10.1163/156854100509484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., & Kumar, S. (2011). MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Thorne, G., & Allen, M. W. (1950). Paratylenchus hamatus n. sp. and Xiphinema index n. sp., two nematodes associated with fig roots, with a note on Paratylenchus anceps cobb. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 17, 27–35.Google Scholar
  41. Wyss, U. (2010). Feeding behavior of plant-parasitic nematodes. In D. L. Lee (Ed.), The biology of nematodes (pp. 462–513). Boca Ratón: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  42. Xu, Y., Ye, W., Wang, J., & Zhao, Z. (2018). Morphological and molecular characterisation of Longidorus pinus sp. n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from China and a key to known species of Longidorus in China. Nematology, 20, 617–639.  https://doi.org/10.1163/15685411-00003165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahrbanou Bakhshi Amrei
    • 1
  • Vlada Peneva
    • 2
  • Farshad Rakhshandehroo
    • 1
  • Majid Pedram
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industries, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem ResearchBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  3. 3.Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations