Sexual reproduction parameters in Fusarium verticillioides populations from maize in Brazil
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Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogen causing infections on ears and/or stalks of maize. This study aimed to compare sexual reproduction parameters in populations of F. verticillioides from distinct regions in the different Brazilian climatic zones where maize is grown. Fertility and effective population size were calculated from data generated by crossing field isolates with female fertile testers. Three hundred fungi isolates were obtained from maize kernels with Fusarium ear rot symptoms in different geographic regions of Brazil in the years 2012 and 2013. For the entire population, 231 out of 300 isolates were cross-fertile with tester isolates. MAT1–1 and MAT1–2 idiomorphs of the fertile isolates segregated in a 105:126 ratio. Female isolates (hermaphrodites) accounted for 96 out of 231 fertile isolates, while 135 were male-only isolates. The ratio of mating types within the population [Ne(mt)] was 99% of the count for the Brazilian population when the mating type idiomorphs were used as predictors to estimate the population size. However, when this calculation was made on the basis of the female fertile isolates, the Ne(f) was 83%. When the total population was divided by geographical/climatic regions, the frequencies of female fertile isolates were 33 out of 80 fertile isolates from the Northeast (equatorial tropical climate); 49 out of 73 fertile isolates from the Central-West (tropical climate); and only 14 out of 78 fertile isolates from the South (temperate climate), indicating that the sexual reproduction in F. verticillioides is likely favored by a tropical climate in Brazil. Brazilian populations of F. verticillioides show high fertility and high effective population size, suggesting the possibility of frequent sexual reproduction in the field, especially in populations from Tropical Climate regions of Brazil.
KeywordsEffective population size Female fertility Fusarium fujikuroi species complex Mating type
The authors thank the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE) for financial support. In addition, the authors would like to thank Professor John F. Leslie for providing the mating testers of Fusarium verticillioides mating population A.
Compliance with ethical standards
Authors confirm that this study described is original and has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to this Journal. This research does not contain any conflicts of interest, nor research involving humans or animals.
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