Genotype-Ideotype distance index and multivariate analysis to select sources of anthracnose resistance in Capsicum spp.

  • Claudia Lougon Paiva de Almeida
  • Cíntia dos Santos Bento
  • Cláudia Pombo Sudré
  • Samy Pimenta
  • Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves
  • Rosana RodriguesEmail author


The challenges of plant breeding for disease resistance include identifying genotypes that are resistant to more than one pathogen isolate and defining adequate methods for measuring resistance. We report the identification of Capsicum spp. genotypes resistant to anthracnose caused by two Colletotrichum scovillei isolates using the Genotype-Ideotype Distance Index (GIDI) and multivariate analysis. Forty-one genotypes of chili peppers from three Capsicum species considering unripe and ripe fruits were evaluated for resistance to anthracnose. For inoculation, 20 μL of a suspension containing 1 × 106 conidia/mL were applied in each fruit. Analyses were performed daily for eight days using a scale from 1 (resistant) to 9 (susceptible). Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), incubation period, and latent period were evaluated in unripe and ripe fruits, and analyzed using a non-parametric test with ANOVA-type statistic and correlated using the Spearman method. Genotypes were classified using the GIDI and Ward’s hierarchical clustering method. There was variability in germplasm resistance to anthracnose considering the resistance variables and the stage of fruit development. GIDI allowed identifying nine C. baccatum var. pendulum genotypes resistant to isolate 13, and eight C. baccatum var. pendulum plus one C. annuum genotypes resistant to isolate 8. GIDI and Ward’s clustering method identified the same genotypes resistant to isolate 8. Finding resistance in Capsicum genotypes representing different genic complexes means that breeders would be able to introgress resistant alleles from non-cultivated or semi-domesticated into cultivated plants. One genotype, UENF 1628 (C. baccatum var. pendulum), was resistant to two pathogen isolates representing a very interesting source of resistance to anthracnose caused by C. scovillei.


Colletotrichum scovillei Breeding for disease resistance Chili pepper Stages of fruit development Resistant ideotype 



The authors thank the Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) Brazil. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001 (CAPES).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UENF-Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético VegetalCampos dos GoytacazesBrazil
  2. 2.UFES - Departamento de AgronomiaAlegreBrazil
  3. 3.UniMontes - Departamento de AgronomiaJanaúbaBrazil
  4. 4.UEL - Centro de Ciências AgráriasLondrinaBrazil

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