Effects of isolates of Clarireedia jacksonii and Clarireedia monteithiana on severity of dollar spot in turfgrasses by host type
- 18 Downloads
Dollar spot, caused by four Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa), is a devastating disease that affects many turfgrass species throughout North America. Proper classification and genetic diversity of Clarireedia spp. was debated for the past several decades until recently when the organism was reclassified in 2018. Previous studies have shown that there is little genetic diversity except for isolates obtained from warm season hosts in Florida and the southern United States. Our research confirms the presence of isolates obtained from cool-season (C3) turfgrass species which are consistent with the recently classified species Clarireedia jacksonii; and a second, distinct sub-group of isolates obtained solely from warm-season (C4) turfgrass species, which are consistent with the recently classified species Clarireedia monteithiana. Additionally, we have documented the coexistence of these two species throughout the transition zone of the United States, extending as far north as Virginia, with both species present among adjacent stands of C3 and C4 turfgrass species in the same locale. Despite previous documentation of genetically distinct isolates occurring in the United States, there have been no reports on the variability in growth of the two named species over a range of temperatures, nor have these species been evaluated for their ability to infect both C3 and C4 turfgrass species. The effects of temperature on the lack of in vitro isolate growth for both C. jacksonii and C. monteithiana isolates were most noticeable at 10 and 35 °C, where all isolates exhibited little to no growth after 60 h. Cross inoculation experiments showed that both species are capable of infecting and inciting disease on both the preferred and alternative host, and that C. jacksonii isolates are more virulent on both C3 and C4 host grasses than C. monteithiana isolates. The results of this study will have implications for dollar spot management strategies on bermudagrass as well as an increased need for turfgrass breeders to develop dollar spot resistance cultivars of bermudagrass, particularly for those used in climates extending north of the transition zone.
KeywordsTurfgrass Population biology Dollar spot Disease management Clarireedia spp.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest exists. The authors, B. A. Aynardi, M. M. Jiménez-Gasco, and W. Uddin declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal studies
No animals/animal objects. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
- Aynardi, Brian A. (2016). Sclerotinia homoeocarpa: Pathogen biology and molecular detection methods. Diss. The Pennsylvania State University, 2016. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University. Print.Google Scholar
- Deng, F., Melzer, M. S., & Boland, G. J. (2002). Vegetative compatibility and transmission of hypovirulence-associated dsRNA in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Can. Journal of Plant Pathology, 24, 481–488.Google Scholar
- Endo, R. M. (1963). Influence of temperature on rate of growth of five fungal pathogens of turfgrass and on rate of disease spread. Phytopathology, 53, 857–861.Google Scholar
- National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). (1997). National Bentgrass (Putting green) Test – 1993. Dollar spot ratings of bentgrass cultivars, 1993–1997 data – Table 24. Final Report NTEP No. 98–12.Google Scholar
- National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). (2012). National Bermudagrass Test – 2007. Dollar spot ratings of bermudagrass cultivars, 2012 data – Table 38-A. Progress report NTEP no. 13–6.Google Scholar
- Salgado-Salazar, C., Beirn, L. A., Ismaiel, A., Boehm, M. J., Carbone, I., Putman, A. I., Tredway, L. P., Clarke, B. B., & Crouch, J. A. (2018). Clarireedia: A new fungal genus comprising four pathogenic species responsible for dollar spot disease of turfgrass. Fungal Biology., 122, 761–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sonoda, R. M. (1989). Vegetative compatibility groups among Sclerotinia homoeocarpa from leaves of Paspalum notatum. Proceedings Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 48, 35–36.Google Scholar
- Tamura, K., Stecher, G., and Kumar, S. (2015). MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger data sets (submitted).Google Scholar
- Vargas, J. M., Jr. (1994). Fungal diseases of turfgrass I: Diseases primarily occurring on golf course turfs. Pages 15–33 in: Management of Turfgrass Diseases (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- White, T. M., Bruns, T., Lee, S., & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA for phylogenetics. Pages 315-322 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Eds., M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, T. J. White. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
- Wu, D. Y., Ugozzoli, L., Pal, B. K., Qian, J. & Wallace, R. B. 1991. The Effect of Temperature and Oligonucleotide Primer Length on the Specificity and Efficiency of Amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. DNA and Cell Biology 10 (3):233–238Google Scholar