Spectral characterization and quantification of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores by Fourier transformed infrared with attenuated total reflectance

  • Lucas Henrique FantinEmail author
  • Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício
  • Karla Braga
  • Giancarlo Michelino Gaeta
  • José Alexandre de França
  • Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri


Asian soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is the most devastating disease in the soybean crop. Despite efforts to control the disease, such as a soybean-free period and cultivar resistance, outbreaks have been increasing in Brazil, with losses reaching 80%. Chemical control is the main strategy adopted by South American farmers to control the disease. Fungicide application is recommended before the occurrence of symptoms; monitoring for spores can improve decision-making and treatment applications. The objective of this study was to identify a spectral signature for the fungus P. pachyrhizi and quantify the number of urediniospores in a sample of water using the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy technique in the MIR range, 650 cm−1 to 4000 cm−1, with the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory. In FTIR spectroscopy, the samples are irradiated by infrared light resulting in absorption of energy by molecular vibrations. Fungus samples were collected in 48 Brazilian soybean growth regions. A total of 130 samples were assessed. The characterization of fungi samples was conducted using Infrared Spectroscopy from 1000 cm−1 to 1560 cm−1. The spectral signature of P. pachyrhizi was between 1500 cm−1 to 1550 cm−1. The quantification showed high values for the calibration coefficients (R2 = 0.9478), cross validation (R2 = 0.9330) and prediction (R2 = 0.9236), which demonstrates the accuracy for estimation of the number of urediniospores. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy enables the characterization and quantification of P. pachyrhizi urediniospores in water samples, creating a more efficient way to monitor spore dispersal and management of this disease.


FTIR-ATR spectroscopy Spectral signature Multivariate analysis Asian soybean rust Soybean 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal studies

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucas Henrique Fantin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício
    • 2
  • Karla Braga
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Michelino Gaeta
    • 3
  • José Alexandre de França
    • 3
  • Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri
    • 1
  1. 1.Agronomy DepartmentUniversidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)LondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Research and DevelopmentInstitute of Economic and Social Development (ITEDES)LondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Electric Engineer DepartmentUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil

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