European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 153, Issue 3, pp 671–685 | Cite as

The emerging pathogen of chestnut Gnomoniopsis castaneae: the challenge posed by a versatile fungus

  • G. Lione
  • R. Danti
  • P. Fernandez-Conradi
  • J. V. Ferreira-Cardoso
  • F. Lefort
  • G. Marques
  • J. B. Meyer
  • S. Prospero
  • L. Radócz
  • C. Robin
  • T. Turchetti
  • A. M. Vettraino
  • P. GonthierEmail author


Gnomoniopsis castaneae is an emerging fungal pathogen currently scored as the major nut rot agent on chestnut, although it is also associated with cankers on both chestnut and hazelnut, as well as with necrosis on chestnut galls and leaves. Described for the first time in 2012, G. castaneae has been reported in several countries across Europe, Asia and Australasia, often in relation to severe outbreaks. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the state of the art about G. castaneae, highlighting the main results achieved by the research and stressing the most relevant knowledge gaps that still need to be filled. This overview includes topics encompassing the taxonomy of the fungal pathogen, its host range and geographic distribution, the symptomatology and the diagnostic methods available for its detection, its impact, biology, ecology and epidemiology. The main interactions between G. castaneae and other organisms are also discussed, as well as the possible control strategies. In these past few years, relevant progresses in the knowledge of G. castaneae have been achieved, yet the complexity of the challenges that this pathogen poses to chestnut growers and to the scientific community advocates for further advances.


Canker Castanea spp. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi Nut rot Review 



This work was carried out within the activities of the Eurochestnut - Fungi Thematic Group. The Authors wish to thank Thomas Sieber of ETH Zürich (Switzerland), Anne Chandelier of the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (Belgium), Patricia van Rijswick of the National Plant Protection Organization (the Netherlands) for proving personal communications and comments useful to this review. The Authors wish to thank the anonymous Reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions which contributed to improve the manuscript.


The work was co-funded by the F.E.A.S.R. 2014/2020, Project #castagnopiemonte, and by Regione Piemonte through the activity of the Chestnut Growing Centre.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not applicable to this article since no information regarding individual participants was included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Lione
    • 1
  • R. Danti
    • 2
  • P. Fernandez-Conradi
    • 3
  • J. V. Ferreira-Cardoso
    • 4
  • F. Lefort
    • 5
  • G. Marques
    • 6
  • J. B. Meyer
    • 7
  • S. Prospero
    • 7
  • L. Radócz
    • 8
  • C. Robin
    • 3
  • T. Turchetti
    • 2
  • A. M. Vettraino
    • 9
  • P. Gonthier
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DISAFA)University of TorinoGrugliascoItaly
  2. 2.Institute for Sustainable Plant ProtectionNational Research CouncilSesto FiorentinoItaly
  3. 3.INRAUniversity of BordeauxCestasFrance
  4. 4.Department of Biology and Environment, Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB)University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  5. 5.Research Institute Land Nature and Environment, Plants and Pathogens Group, HepiaHES-SO University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western SwitzerlandJussySwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Agronomy, Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB)University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  7. 7.Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL)BirmensdorfSwitzerland
  8. 8.Institute of Plant ProtectionDebrecen UniversityDebrecenHungary
  9. 9.Department for Innovation in Biological, Agrofood and Forest SystemsUniversity of TusciaViterboItaly

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