Race and virulence of asexual and sexual populations of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in China from 2009 to 2015
Stem rust of wheat caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) has been under control in China for decades but new races including the Ug99 race group are an ongoing threat. Pgt race surveillance is an essential component for disease prevention strategies. Three hundred fourteen isolates (284 asexual and 30 sexual) obtained from 2009 to 2015 in China were tested on a panel of differential lines and categorized into five race groups (21C3, 34C0, 34C1, 34C3, and 34C6) and 29 races. Race group 21C3 was most frequent (64.0%) and race 21C3CTHTM was the most prevalent (16.6%). Race group 34C6 and 15 races were detected for the first time, accounting for 2.5 and 27.4% of the isolates, respectively. The most widely used stem rust resistance gene (Sr31) is effective against all isolates, however other commonly used resistance genes (Sr5, and Sr17) are only effective to some of the isolates. Novel Pgt races with virulence to both Sr5 and Sr11 were detected. Isolates from the sexual population were strikingly different from those of the asexual population, having higher frequency of new race group, new races and new virulence combination (Sr5 + Sr11). In addition, the higher variation in sexual Pgt population observed in the region growing wild barberries suggests that these sites might be responsible for the occurrence of new races in major wheat growing areas in China.
KeywordsPhysiological races Sexual population Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Berberis Sr genes
This study was supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB127701), the Special Fund for Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest (201303016) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31171829). The great deal of effort was made by our colleagues to get asexual samples in different locations. We deeply appreciate their assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
This manuscript has not been published or presented elsewhere in part or in entirety and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have read and understood your journal’s Ethical Standards and Informed consent, and we believe that neither the manuscript nor the study violates any of these. There are no conflicts of interest to declare, and don’t involve Human Participants and Animals. All authors agree to submit article to European Journal of Plant Pathology.
- Bushnell, W. R., & Roelfs, A. P. (1984). The Cereal Rusts, Volume I. Origins, Specificity, Structure and Physiology (p. 546). Orlando, San Diego, San Francisco, New York, London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo, and Sao Paulo: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. Y., Yao, P., Zhu, G. Q., & Wu, Y. S. (1994). A preliminary analysis of probable genes for stem rust resistance and resistance stability of 41 wheat cultivars in China. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 25, 392–397.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. Y., Yao, P., Liu, W. Z., & Wu, Y. S. (1996a). Pathogenic spectrum analysis of 21C3CTR of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in China. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 27, 26–30.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. Y., Yao, P., Zhu, G. Q., Liu, W. Z., & Wu, Y. S. (1996b). Application of computer to inferring stem rust resistance genes commercial wheat cultivars. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 29, 89–91.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. Y., Yao, P., Wu, Y. S., Bi, Y. Q., & Yang, J. X. (2001). Discovery and verification of an important inoculum source for Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in China. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica (Journal of Plant Protection), 28, 294–298.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. Y., Han, J. D., Zhu, G. Q., & Zhang, L. (2007). Ug99, a new virulent race of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and its effect on China. Plant Protection, 33, 86–89.Google Scholar
- CIMMYT (2007). Dangerous wheat disease jumps Red Sea. Devastating fungal pathogen spreads from Eastern Africa to Yemen, following path scientists predicted. https://www.eurekalert.org/ pub_releases/2007–01/imaw-dwd011607.php.
- CIMMYT EXPERT PANEL (2005). Sounding the alarm on global stem rust. http://www.globalrust.org/uploads/documents/SoundingAlarmGlobalRust.pdf.
- Han, J. D. (2009). Resistant gene control and related mechanism to the invasion of race Ug99 of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. [master’s thesis]. [Shenyang]: Shenyang Agricultural University.Google Scholar
- Han, J. D., Cao, Y. Y., & Sun, Z. G. (2010). Race dynamics of Puccinia graminis f. Sp. tritici in China and the virulence of CIMMYT wheat germplasms resistant to Ug99. Journal of Triticeae Crops, 30, 163–166.Google Scholar
- Li, Z. Q., & Zeng, S. M. (2002). Wheat rust in China (1st ed.p. 379). Beijing: China Agricultural Press.Google Scholar
- Li, T. Y., Cao, Y. Y., Wu, X. X., Xu, X. F., & Wang, W. L. (2016a). Seedling resistance to stem rust and molecular marker analysis of resistance genes in wheat cultivars of Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE, 11(10), e0165640. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165640.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu, A. F., Li, H. S., Song, J. M., Chen, D. G., Zhao, Z. D., & Liu, J. J. (2009). Resistance analysis of stem rust resistance genes to new virulent pathogen Ug99 in common wheat. Shandong Agricultural Science, 6, 61–63.Google Scholar
- Mago, R., Bariana, H. S., Dundas, I. S., Spielmeyer, W., Lawrence, G. J., Pryor, A. J., & Ellis, J. (2005). Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theoretical Applied of Genetics, 111, 496–504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-005-2039-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P., Huerta-Espino, J., Jin, Y., Bhavani, S., Njau, P., Herrera-Foessel, S., Singh, P. K., Singh, S., & Govindan, V. (2011). The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 49, 465–481. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service (2014). World Agricultural Production. October 2014. http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/production.pdf.
- Wu, Y. S., & Huang, Z. T. (1987). Twenty years’ racial identification and fluctuation analysis of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in China. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 18, 105–138.Google Scholar
- Yao, P., Cao, Y. Y., Liu, W. Z., & Wu, Y. S. (1995). Race dynamics of Puccinia graminis f. Sp. tritici in China in 1993. Journal of Plant Protection, 22, 303–308.Google Scholar
- Ying, J. S., & Chen, D. Z. (2001). Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae, tomus 29-Lardizabalaceae and Berberidaceae. Sciences Press, 50–248.Google Scholar
- Zhao, J., Wang, L., Wang, Z., Chen, X. M., Zhang, H. C., Yao, J. N., Zhan, G., Chen, W., Huang, L., & Kang, Z. (2013). Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. Sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China. Phytopathology, 103, 927–934.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar