Horizontal and vertical transmission of the hypovirulence-associated mycovirus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1
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Mycovirus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 (FodV1) has been recently described infecting isolate Fod 116 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod). FodV1 is a new member of the family Chrysoviridae, and its genome consists of four dsRNA segments ranging from 2.6 to 3.5 kb. Presence of high levels of FodV1 in its original fungal host correlated with alteration of some phenotypic traits, including virulence. In this work we have analysed if FodV1 can be transferred horizontally to another Fod isolate by hyphal anastomosis, and vertically through conidiation, and if the mycovirus accumulates in the recipient isolate at similar levels that those found in the donor one. Moreover, we have investigated if the new virus-infected isolate reproduces the same phenotypic alterations that the original virus-infected does. Results indicated that FodV1 transfers horizontally between compatible isolates by hyphal anastomosis, reaching a high level of accumulation in the recipient isolate, and vertically during sporogenesis. Presence of FodV1 in the new fungal host reduced the growth rate and altered the morphology of the colony on solid medium, and diminished the conidiation rate in liquid medium. More interestingly, FodV1 induced hypovirulence in its new fungal host. Results contained in this work constitute the basis for further research on the application of mycovirus FodV1 to the control of Fusarium wilt diseases.
KeywordsBiological control Carnation Chrysoviridae Fusarium wilt
This research was supported by Grants AGL 2010-18279, from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, and AGL 2013-48980-R, from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, co-funded by the European Union (FEDER funds). We thank Antonio Valverde for their valuable technical assistance and Emilio A. Cano (Barberet & Blanc, Dümmen Orange) for providing carnation cultivars.
This research was supported by Grants AGL 2010–18279, from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, and AGL 2013–48980-R, from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, co-funded by the European Union (FEDER funds).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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