Baseline sensitivity of Phytophthora capsici to the strobilurin fungicide benzothiostrobin and the efficacy of this fungicide
- 91 Downloads
Phytophthora capsici Leonian is a destructive oomycete plant pathogen that causes diseases in a wide range of crops worldwide. Benzothiostrobin is a broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide that may control pepper Phytophthora blight. In the current study, the sensitivities of 90 P. capsici isolates collected from different regions in southern China to benzothiostrobin were measured. The curative and protective effects of benzothiostrobin against pepper Phytophthora blight were also determined. The formation of sporangia was inhibited by lower concentrations of benzothiostrobin, approximately 1 μg mL−1 on V8 media, than was necessary to inhibit zoospore discharge. The frequency distribution curve for the benzothiostrobin sensitivity was unimodal with mean EC50 values of 1.84 ± 0.24, 0.60 ± 0.10 and 4.44 ± 0.27 for inhibiting mycelial growth, sporangia formation and zoospore discharge, respectively. The P. capsici isolates used in this study exhibited decreased sensitivity to several commonly used effective fungicides, including mefenoxam, cyazofamid, fluazinam and propamocarb. Furthermore, benzothiostrobin had no cross-resistance with azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin or famoxadone. The disease severity of pepper Phytophthora blight on pepper leaves and plants was dramatically reduced by benzothiostrobin application of 150 μg mL−1. Benzothiostrobin provided both curative and protective properties against pepper Phytophthora blight on detached pepper leaves and potted pepper plants, with greater protective activity than curative activity. These results suggested that benzothiostrobin may be used for the management of P. capsici.
KeywordsBenzothiostrobin Phytophthora capsici Baseline sensitivity Control efficacy
The National Key Research Development Program of China (2017YFD0201600) has reported this study. We express our thanks to the companies that provided technical-grade fungicide.
This study was funded by the National Key Research Development Program of China (2017YFD0201600).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Erwin, D. C., & Ribeiro, O. K. (1996). Phytophthora diseases worldwide. St. Paul: APS Press, American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
- Fernández-Ortuño, D., Torés, J. A., De, V. A., & Pérez-García, A. (2008). Mechanisms of resistance to QoI fungicides in phytopathogenic fungi. International Microbiology, 11, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Gao, L. L., Hu, D. Y., Jin, Y. L., & Huang, R. M. (2008). Toxicities and field tests of a new fungicide Y5247 against Sphaerotheca macularis. Journal of Mountain Agriculture & Biology, 27, 550–553.Google Scholar
- Godwin, J. R., Anthony, V. M., Clough, J. M., & Godfrey, C. R. A. (1992). ICIA5504: A novel, broad spectrum, systemic beta-methoxyacrylate fungicide. Pests & Diseases, 1, 435–442.Google Scholar
- Jia, J. C., Lin, M. A., Fan, Z. J., Xia, Q., & Liu, X. F. (2008). Progress on study of resistance mechanism of strobilurin fungicides. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 10, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Leonian, L. H. (1922). Stem and fruit blight of peppers caused by Phytophthora capsici sp. nov. Phytopathology, 12, 401–408.Google Scholar
- Miao, J. Q., Li, X. H., Han, J., & Liu, F. (2011). Comparison of the toxicity of four carboxylic acid amide fungicides against Phytophthora capsici at their three different life stages. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 13, 539–542.Google Scholar
- Qian, Z. H., Chen, C. J., Wang, J. X., & Zhou, M. G. (2006). Baseline sensitivity of different morpha of Phytophthora capsici Leonian to azoxystrobin. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 36, 322–327.Google Scholar
- Russel, P. E. (2004). Sensitivity baselines in fungicide resistance research and management. FRAC Monograph No. 3, FRAC, Brussels, Belgium. http://www.frac.info/publication/anhang/monograph3.pdf. Accessed 8 Mar 2014.
- Wang, Y. K., & Huang, R. M. (2008). Plot effect test of Y5247 for controlling cucumber powdery mildew. Journal of Mountain Agriculture & Biology, 27, 180–182.Google Scholar
- Wang, J. Q., Xu, W. Y., Zhu, Q. L., & Gang, W. U. (2006). Control efficacy of 56% cupric hydroxide dimethomorph WP against Phytophthora blight in pepper plants. Subtropical Agriculture Research, 1, 37–40.Google Scholar
- Xu, C. Y., Hou, Y., Wang, J., Chen, C., & Zhou, M. I. (2014a). Fungicidal activity and biological characteristics of benzothiostrobin, a novel QoI fungicide. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 16, 667–672.Google Scholar
- Zhang, G. (2003). Current status of application, development and prospect of strobin fungicides. Pesticide Science & Administration, 12, 30–34.Google Scholar
- Zhao, W. S., Han, X. Y., Wang, W. Q., & Zhang, X. F. (2010). Advance on fungicides resistance of Phytophthora capsici. Agrochemicals, 49, 86–89.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Y. X., Chen, L., Hu, J., Liu, P. F., Zhang, Y., Meng, Q. X., Li, B., Si, N. G., Liu, C. L., & Liu, X. L. (2016a). Baseline sensitivity of natural population and resistance risk of Peronophythora litchii to four novel QoI fungicides. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhou, Y. X., Yang, Y. B., Zhang, Y., Li, B., Si, N. G., Liu, C. L., & Liu, X. L. (2016b). Sensitivity of Peronophythora litchii at different development stages to four QoI fungicides. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science, 18, 57–64.Google Scholar