Assessing the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in France
- 130 Downloads
White mould caused by the ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum affects the production of many economically important crops. The incidence of this disease has recently increased in France, especially in melon crops, which were not affected much in the past. One possible explanation for this situation is the emergence of strains with particular characteristics, including increased aggressiveness to melon. To test this hypothesis, 200 isolates of S. sclerotiorum were collected from six host crops (bean, brassica oilseed rape, carrot, lettuce, melon, witloof chicory) in different regions. They were genotyped with 16 microsatellites markers. A subsample of 96 isolates were assessed for their aggressiveness on melon leaves. Overall, the isolates from melon did not show higher aggressiveness on melon leaves than those which originated from other host plants. Moreover, the melon isolates did not present distinctive genetic characteristics in comparison with those from other crops and shared several of the 128 identified multilocus haplotypes with isolates collected from carrot, witloof chicory and oilseed rape. Furthermore the Bayesian analysis of the genetic structure indicated that the host plant is not a structuring factor of the three genetic clusters identified, and it suggested instead the occurrence of an isolation-by-distance process. Possible consequences of these results for the management of white mould and alternative hypotheses to explain the recent changes in disease incidence are presented.
KeywordsWhite mould Microsatellites Aggressiveness Vegetable Melon
This study was supported in part by a CASDAR grant of the French Ministry of Agriculture (SCLEROLEG Project) and by the Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique pour la Production Intégrée des Cultures légumières” (GIS PIClég). The authors thank all the field experimenters of the technical institutes (ACPEL, APEF, CEFEL, INVENIO, Terres Inovia, SILEBAN, UNILET) who collaborated in the project and who collected the isolates used in the present study.
Compliance with ethical standards
The research presented in this paper was supported in part by a CASDAR grant of the French Ministry of Agriculture (SCLEROLEG Project) and by the Groupement d’Intérêt Scientifique pour la Production Intégrée des Cultures légumières” (GIS PIClég).
The authors declare that this research was performed according to the ethical standards.
All the authors agreed to submit this manuscript in this current version.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare to have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
The research did not involve human participants and/or animals.
- Aldrich-Wolfe, L., Travers, S., & Nelson Jr., B. D. (2015). Genetic variation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from multiple crops in the north central United States. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139188.
- Barari, H., Alavi, V., & Badalyan, S. M. (2010). Genetic and morphological diversities in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates in northern parts of Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 8, 326–333.Google Scholar
- Belkhir, K., Borsa, P., Chikhi, L., Raufaste, N., & Bonhomme, F. (1996–2004). Genetix 4.05, logiciel sous Windows TM pour la génétique des populations. Laboratoire Génome, Populations, Interactions, CNRS UMR 5171, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France. [WWW document]. URL http://www.genetix.univ-montp2.fr/genetix/intro.htm.
- Clarkson, J. P., Fawcett, L., Anthony, S. G., & Young, C. (2014). A model for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection and disease development in lettuce, based on the effects of temperature, relative humidity and ascospore density. PLoS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094049.
- Clarkson, J. P., Warmington, R., Walley, P. G., Denton-Giles, M., Barbetti, M. J., Brodal, G., & Nordskog, B. (2017). Population structure of Sclerotinia subarctica and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in England, Scotland and Norway. Frontiers in Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00490.
- Dunn, A. R., Kikkert, J. R., & Pethybridge, S. J. (2017). Genotypic characteristics in populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from New York State, USA. Annals of Applied Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12330.
- Elsheshtawi, M., Elkhaky, M. T., Sayed, S. R., Bahkali, A. H., Mohammed, A. A., Gambhir, D., Mansour, A. S., & Elgorban, A. M. (2017). Integrated control of white rot disease on beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans ® and reduced fungicides application. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24, 405–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Excoffier, L., Laval, G., & Schneider, S. (2005). Arlequin ver. 3.0: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, 1, 47–50.Google Scholar
- Kaczmar, M. J., Wilson, V., & Leroux, P. (2000). The control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape: what future for carbendazim? Phytoma, 529, 31–33.Google Scholar
- Lehner, M. S., Paula Jr., T. J., Hora Jr., B. T., Teixeira, H., Vieira, R. F., Carneiro, J. E. S., & Mizubuti, E. S. G. (2015). Low genetic variability in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum populations from common bean fields in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, at regional, local and micro-scales. Plant Pathology, 64, 921–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nicot, P. C., Avril, F., Duffaud, M., Leyronas, C., Troulet, C., Villeneuve, F., & Bardin, M. (2016). Are there regional differences in the susceptibility of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains to Coniothyrium minitans? IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, 117, 83–87.Google Scholar
- Petrofeza, S., & Nasser, L.C.B. (2012). Case study: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: Genetic diversity and disease control. In: M. Caliskan (Ed) The molecular basis of plant genetic diversity. InTech, https://doi.org/10.5772/33780. https://www.intechopen.com/books/the-molecular-basis-of-plant-genetic-diversity/case-study-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-genetic-diversity-and-disease-control.
- Steadman, J. R. (1983). White mold - a serious yield-limiting disease of bean. Plant Disease, 6, 7346–7350.Google Scholar
- Tok, F. M., Dervis, S., & Arslan, M. (2016). Analysis of genetic diversity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from eggplant by mycelial compatibility, random amplification of polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 30, 921–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walker, A. S., Gladieux, P., Decognet, V., Fermaud, M., Confais, J., Roudet, J., Bardin, M., Bout, A., Nicot, P. C., Poncet, C., & Fournier, E. (2015a). Population structure and temporal maintenance of the multihost fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea: causes and implications for disease management. Environmental Microbiology, 17, 1261–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walker, A.S., Auclair, C., Rémuson, F., Micoud, A., Carpezat, J., Ravigné, V., & Fournier, E. (2015b). Status of resistance towards SDHIs in French populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and characterization of resistant strains. Presented at Resistance 2015, Harpenden, UK.Google Scholar
- Warmington, R.J. (2014). Pathogen diversity, epidemiology and control of Sclerotinia disease in vegetable crops. PhD thesis, University of Warwick, UK.Google Scholar