Virulence variation of cucurbit powdery mildews in the Czech Republic – population approach
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Kosman diversity models were applied to analyses of virulence (disease reaction patterns) variation of 115 isolates of two cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) species, Golovinomyces orontii (Go) and Podosphaera xanthii (Px), collected in the Czech Republic from 2010 through 2012. Diversity within and distances between Go and Px populations and each other in a spatio-temporal context and with regard to original host plant species were analyzed based on virulence patterns of individual isolates on a set of 21 melon (Cucumis melo L.) race differential genotypes. Significant differentiation among the Go and Px pathogen populations was revealed, and the results clearly demonstrate and confirm that the set of differential C. melo genotypes is well composed because of high differentiation capacity. Differentiation of pathogens among years was significant for both species. No significant difference between Go isolates from different host plant species was established due to high variability among Go isolates, but there was significant host-specific differentiation among Px isolates. Differentiation of pathogens among regions was not detected. These results revealed high virulence variation in isolates of Go and Px, and their spatio-temporal fluctuations. High diversity in virulence of Go isolates supports the treatment of Go as a complex of different (sub)species with distinct virulence factors. Similar relationships of selected Go isolates in a UPGMA dendrogram in a previously reported multigene phylogenetic tree support the logic and suitability of the Kosman assignment based approach to population studies of organisms with asexual or mixed modes of reproduction. The approach applied in this study provides a complex view of virulence structures of powdery mildew populations, and when combined with race determination and denomination on melon, it may serve as a base to understandvirulence variation of these CPM species from a spatio-temporal viewpoint.
KeywordsGolovinomyces orontii Podosphaera xanthii Cucumis melo Differential set validation Virulence patterns Population diversity Assignment based approach Virulence analysis tool (VAT) software Asexual (clonal) reproduction
This research was supported by the following grants: MSM 6198959215 Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports, Czech Repblic), QH 71229 (National Agency for Agricultural Research, Czech Ministry of Agriculture) and Internal Grant Agency of Palacký University in Olomouc (IGA_PrF_2017_001; IGA_PrF_2018_001).
1) MSM 6198959215 (Czech Ministry of Education); 2) QH71229 (NAZV, National Agency for Agricultural Research of the Czech Republic); 3) Internal Grant Agency of Palacký University in Olomouc (IGA_PrF_2017_001; IGA_PrF_2018_001).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There are no potential conflicts (financial or non-financial) of interest.
Human and animal rights
Research did not involve Human Participants and/or Animals.
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