Effects of pH and titratable acidity on the growth and development of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) in vitro and in vivo.
- 125 Downloads
This investigation examines the effects of pH and titratable acidity on the growth and developments of a strain of Monilinia laxa (Aderhold & Ruhland) at seven different pH levels in Potato Dextrose Agar media and on peach fruit from formation to commercial maturity. The fungi growth was obtained by daily measurement of mycelia on the pH amended Potato Dextrose Agar. The sporulation performance was determined after 30 days of culture incubation. Fruits were inoculated with M. laxa, from fruit set to maturity, on weekly basis for brown rot susceptibility. The pathogen development, in vitro, was affected, by the pH (2.4–11.52) amended nutrient media. M. laxa exhibited variation in its growth and sporulation capacities on the seven pH amended PDA, preferring relatively moderate acidic conditions for optimum performance. In the in vitro analysis, there was mycelia growth at pH 2.40 to 8.84, while pH 11.52 did not support any mycelia growth. There was a continuous and stable increase in weight of fruit as it developed whereas the fruit size increased, then decreased and finally increased as the fruit develops. The acidity dynamics exhibited a non-sinusoidal waveform through the growth and development of the fruit. In all these characteristic variations, M. laxa did not develop infection or shown any brown rot incidence in the fruit until the period of commercial maturity.
KeywordsAlkaline Monilia Physicochemical Prunus persica Tolerance
Brown rot incidence
Days after floration
Days after fruit set
Expected pH values
Potato dextrose agar
Revolutions per minute
Real pH values
We thank Dr. J. Usall of the (IRTA Lleida) for providing the original inoculum of the M. laxa; to Dr. M.A. Moreno (EEAD-CSIC) for providing plant material; and to R. Giménez (EEAD-CSIC) for technical assistance. The Research Center and Food Technology of Aragón (CITA) allowed us the use of its plant protection facilities.
This work was financed by the MINECO and the Government of Aragón with projects AGL2014-52063R A44; co-financed with FEDER and ESF, respectively.
Compliance with ethical Standard
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest exists.
Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
This article /manuscript does not contain any studies with human and /or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is as a result of a general study in the evaluation of peach germplasm for tolerance to brown rot by Monilinia laxa at the Aula Dei-CSIC peach collection, Zaragoza. I, Vitus Ikechukwu Obi, testify on behalf of all co-authors (Yolanda Gogorcena and Juan Jose Barriuso) that our article.
Title: “Effects of pH and titratable acidity on the growth and development of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) in vitro and in vivo”,
a) has not been published in whole or in part elsewhere;
b) is not currently being considered for publication in another journal;
c) and that all authors have been personally and actively involved in substantive work leading to the manuscript, and will hold ourselves jointly and individually responsible for its content.
- Abidi, W., Cantín, C. M., Jiménez, S., Giménez, R., Moreno, M. A., & Gogorcena, Y. (2015). Influence of antioxidant compounds, total sugars and genetic background on the chilling injury susceptibility of a non-melting peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] progeny. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95, 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6727.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal, D. K., & Sarboy, A. K. (1978). Physiological studies on four species of Fursarium pathogenic to soyabean. Indian Phytopathology, 31, 24–31.Google Scholar
- Agrios, G. N. (2011). Plant Pathology. USA: Academic Press, Inc..Google Scholar
- Alexopoulos, C. J. (1952). Introductory Mycology. New York: WIE, John Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
- Douds, D. D. (1994). Relationship between hyphal and arbuscular colonization and sporulation in a mycorrhiza of Paspalum notatum Flugge. New Phytologist, 126, 233–237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb03941.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gradziel, J. (1994). Changes in susceptibility to Brown rot with ripening in three clingstone peach genotypes. American Society of Horticural. Science, 119, 101–105.Google Scholar
- Guidarelli, M., Zubini, P., Bertolini, P., Nanni, V., & Barald, E. (2014). Gene expression analysis of peach fruit at different growth stages and with different susceptibility to Monilinia laxa. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 140, 503–513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-014-0484-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gupta, V. K., Gaur, R. K., & Misra, A. K. (2010). Physiological characterization of Fusarium spp. isolates, causing wilt of guava in India. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50, 452–456.Google Scholar
- Holb, I. J. (2004). Effect of acidity on growth rate and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 10, 63–67.Google Scholar
- Jansch, M., Frey, J. E., Hilber-Bodmer, M., Broggini, G. A. L., Weger, J., Schnabel, G., & Patocchi, A. (2012). SSR marker analysis of Monilinia fructicola from Swiss apricots suggests introduction of the pathogen from neighboring countries and the United States. Plant Pathology, 61, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Larena, I., Torres, R., De Cal, A., Liñán, M., Melgarejo, P., Domenichini, P., Bellini, A., Mandrin, J. F., Lichou, J., Ochoa de Eribe, X., & Usall, J. (2005). Biological control of Postharvest Brown rots (Monilinia spp.) of peaches by field applications of Epicoccum nigrum. Biological Control, 32, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maharshi, A. R., & Thaker, V. S. (2012). Growth and Development of Plant Pathogenic Fungi in Define Media. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2, 44–54.Google Scholar
- Moing, A., Svanella, L., Rolin, D., Gaudllere, M., Gaudillere, J. P., & Monet, R. (1998). Compositional changes during the fruit development of two peach cultivars differing in juice acidity. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 123, 770–775.Google Scholar
- Romero-Arenas, O., Damián-Huato, M. A., Israel Hernández Treviño, I. H., Parraguire-Lezama, J. F. C., Aragón-García, A., & Arellano, A. D. (2012). Effect of pH on growth of the mycelium of Trichoderma viride and Pleurotus ostreatus in solid cultivation mediums. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 4724–4730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tutu, E., & Ciornea, E. (2011). The influence of H+ ions concentration on the dynamics of the activities of certain dehydrogenases of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey fungus parasitic on plum trees. Biologie Molecular, TOM XII, 2011.Google Scholar