European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 151, Issue 1, pp 155–172 | Cite as

Description and molecular phylogeny of one new and one known needle nematode of the genus Paralongidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from grapevine in Portugal using integrative approach

  • Carlos Gutiérrez-GutiérrezEmail author
  • Manuel Mota
  • Pablo Castillo
  • Margarida Teixeira Santos
  • Juan E. Palomares-Rius


A new and a known longidorid nematode, Paralongidorus lusitanicus n. sp. and Paralongidorus plesioepimikis, are described and illustrated from populations extracted from soil associated with grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) from Escaroupim and Pó (central-Western Portugal), respectively. The new needle nematode P. lusitanicus n. sp. is characterised by a very large body size (8072–12,022 μm), an expanded and rounded lip region, ca 30 μm wide, with a clear constriction followed by a depression posterior to the amphidial aperture, amphidial fovea very large (11.0–19.0 μm), stirrup-shaped, with conspicuous slit-like aperture as shown in scanning electron microscopy studies, a very long and flexible odontostyle (180.0–223.0 μm), guiding ring located at 28.0–41.5 μm from anterior end, vulva anterior to the mid-body (34–41%), a dorsally convex-conoid tail with rounded terminus (29–42 μm long), bearing two or three pairs of caudal pores and males common (ratio 1:1.6 females) with spicules ca 80 μm long. Morphological and morphometric traits for P. plesioepimikis fit well with the original description, and is reported for the first time in Portugal. Integrative diagnosis of both species was completed with molecular data obtained using D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA, ITS1-rDNA and partial 18S–rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships of these species with other Paralongidorus spp. using these three molecular markers indicated that P. lusitanicus n. sp. clustered together with other Paralongidorus spp. forming a sister clade with P. plesioepimikis, both of them sharing a large body, long odontostyle, an anteriorly located vulva and an expanded and rounded lip region with a clear constriction followed by a depression posterior to the amphidial aperture.


Bayesian inference Longidorids Paralongidorus Phylogeny rDNA Taxonomy 



This research was financially supported by FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology postdoctoral fellowship SFRH/ BPD/95315/2013 and FEDER Funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE and National Funds through FCT under the Strategic Projects PEst-C/AGR/UI0115/2011 and PEst-OE/ AGR/UI0115/2014 (Portugal). This research is partially supported by grant AGR-136 from ‘Consejería de Economía, Innvovación y Ciencia’ from Junta de Andalucía, and Union Europea, Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo regional, “Una manera de hacer Europa”. Authors thank A. Candeias from HERCULES Laboratory, Universidade de Évora and J. A. Paulo Mirão from Instituto de Ciências da Terra (ICT) for their help with SEM studies, I. Ferreira and G. Albarrán Madrigal from Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM)-Universidade of Évora for the excellent technical assistance and C. Cantalapiedra-Navarrete (IAS-CSIC) for critical reading of the manuscript before submission and for the excellent technical assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that 1) they do not have any actual or potential conflict of interest, 2) the study described is original and has not been published previously, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, 3) all prevailing local, national and international regulations and conventions, and normal scientific ethical practices, have been respected. We also certify that all authors have reviewed the manuscript and approved the final version of manuscript before submission.

Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals

No specific permits were required for the described fieldwork studies. Permission for sampling the vineyards was granted by the landowner. The sites are not protected in any way.

Informed Consent

All the authors certify that the work carried out in this research followed the principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manuel Mota
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pablo Castillo
    • 3
  • Margarida Teixeira Santos
    • 4
  • Juan E. Palomares-Rius
    • 3
  1. 1.NemaLab/ICAAM, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas & Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento Ciências da VidaUniversidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, EPCVLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (IAS), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, ceiA3CórdobaSpain
  4. 4.Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária (INIAV), Quinta do MarquêsOeirasPortugal

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