A survey of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in historical seed from collections of carrot and related Apiaceae species
- 441 Downloads
The occurrence of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) was determined in commercial and wild species of the family Apiaceae, obtained from three seed collections held in the United Kingdom. The accessions dated from the 1970s and the seed had been sourced worldwide. Although only small quantities of each seed accession was tested, a high proportion of commercial carrot seed lots from European sources contained the bacterium; the earliest dating from 1973. Celery, parsnip and parsley seed were also tested and positive seed was found, dating from 1980, 2001 and 1990 respectively. This paper reports the first finding of Lso in celeriac seed with the earliest positive accession dating from 1979, also the first finding of Lso in the seed of the wild carrot Daucus carota and the related species D. aureus, both from Lebanon (1990). Lso was found in old commercial seed from countries not previously reporting the presence of this bacterium in Apiaceae species: Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Japan, Netherlands, Soviet Union, Syria, United Kingdom and United States of America. There were clear differences in findings of the bacterium in historical seed from different regions of the world and different Apiaceae species, with few findings in seed from countries outside of the European-Mediterranean region and from wild Apiaceae species.
Keywords‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Apiaceae species Historical seed
The authors would like to thank Tom Christie from the Variety Testing Unit SASA, Charlotte Allender from the Warwick Genetic Resources Unit and Kew’s Millennium Seed Collection for assistance and provision of seed.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest involving human participants, animals or informed consent.
- Alfaro-Fernández, A., Hernández-Llopis, D., & Font, M. I. (2017a). Haplotypes of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ identified in Umbeliferous crops in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-017-1172-2.
- Alfaro-Fernández, A., Verdeguer, M., Rodriguez-León, F., Ibáñez, I., Hernández, D., Teresani, G. R., et al. (2017b). Search for reservoirs of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ and mollicutes in weeds associated with carrot and celery crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 147, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Antolinez, C. A., Fereres, A., & Moreno, A. (2017). Risk assessment of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ transmission by the psyllids Bactericera trigonica and B. tremblayi from Apiaceae crops to potato. Scientific Reports, 7, 45534. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45534.
- EPPO. (2017). First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on carrot in Israel. EPPO reporting service no. 01. 2017/020. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-5988.
- Hajri, A., Loiseau, M., Cousseau-Suhard, P., Renaudin, I., & Gentit, P. (2017). Genetic characterization of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotypes associated with apiaceous crops in France. Plant Disease, (in press) PDIS-11-6-1686-RE.Google Scholar
- Ilardi, V., Di Nicola, E., & Tavazza, M. (2016). First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in commercial carrot seeds in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(2), 374. https://doi.org/10.4454/JPP.V98I2.040.
- Li, W., Abad, J. A., French-Monar, R. D., Rascoe, J., Wen, A., Gudmestad, N. C., et al. (2009). Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in potato plants with zebra chip. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 78, 59–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Loiseau, M., Renaudin, I., Cousseau-Suhard, P., Poliakoff, F., & Gentit, P. (2017a). Transmission tests of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum by carrot seeds. International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, Belgium, 41-6.Google Scholar
- Loiseau, M., Renaudin, I., Cousseau-Suhard, P., Lucas, P., Forveille, A., & Gentit, P. (2017b). Lack of evidence of vertical transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' by carrot seeds suggests that seed is not a major transmission pathway. Plant Disease (in press). http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/10.1094/PDIS-04-17-0531-RE.
- Reid, A., Hof, L., Esselink, D., & Vosman, B. (2009). Potato cultivar genome analysis. In R. Burns (Ed.), Methods in molecular biology, plant pathology (Vol. 508, pp. 295–308). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Secor, G. A., Rivera-Varas, V., Abad, J. A., Lee, I. M., Clover, G. R. G., Liefting, L. W., et al. (2009). Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with zebra chip disease of potato established by graft and psyllid transmission, electron microscopy and PCR. Plant Disease, 93, 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teresani, G. R., Bertolini, E., Alfaro-Fernández, A., Martinez, C., Tanaka, F. A. O., Kitajima, E. W., et al. (2014a). Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with a vegetative disorder of celery in Spain and development of a real-time PCR method for its detection. Phytopathology, 104, 804–811.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teresani, G., Bertolini, E., Loiseau, M., Tanaka, F., Barbé, S., Martínez, C., et al. (2014b). 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum': A carrot seedborne bacterium. Presentation at the final meeting of the EUPHRESCO PHYLIB project 1-2nd October 2014 at SASA, Edinburgh, UK. https://www.sasa.gov.uk/sites/default/files/7%20%27Ca.%20Liberibacter%20solanacearum%27%20%3B%20a%20carrot%20seedborne%20bacterium.%20%20Gabriela%20Teresani.pdf.
- Teresani, G., Hernández, E., Bertolini, E., Silverio, F., Marroquin, C., Molina, J., et al. (2015). Search for potential vectors of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’: Population dynamics in host crops. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(e), 10.002.Google Scholar
- Thomas, K. L., Jones, D. C., Kumarasinghe, L. B., Richmond, J. E., Gill, G. S. C., & Bullians, M. S. (2011). Investigation into the entry pathway for tomato potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli. New Zealand Plant Protection, 64, 259–268.Google Scholar