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European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 150, Issue 1, pp 73–90 | Cite as

A new dagger nematode, Xiphinema tica n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae), from Costa Rica with updating of the polytomous key of Loof and Luc (1990)

  • Walter Peraza-Padilla
  • Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete
  • Tatiana Zamora-Araya
  • Juan E. Palomares-Rius
  • Pablo Castillo
  • Antonio Archidona-YusteEmail author
Article

Abstract

A new dagger nematode, Xiphinema tica n. sp., is described and illustrated from several populations extracted from soil associated with several crops and wild plants in Costa Rica. The new dagger nematode is characterised by a moderate body size (3276–4240 μm), a rounded lip region, ca 13.5 μm wide, separated from body contour by a shallow depression, amphidial fovea large, stirrup-shaped, a moderately long odontostyle ca 135 μm long, stylet guiding ring located at ca 122 μm from anterior end, vulva almost equatorial (50–54%), well-developed Z-organ, with heavy muscularised wall containing in the most of specimens observed two moderately refractive inclusions variable in shape (from round to star-shaped), with uterine spines and crystalloid bodies; female tail short, dorsally convex-conoid, with rounded end and a small peg, with a c’ ratio ca 0.8, bearing two or three pairs of caudal pores and male absent. The unique and novel uterine differentiation based on the coexistence of a well-developed Z-organ mixed with uterine spines and crystalloid bodies in Xiphinema prompted us to update and include this combination of characters in the polytomous key of Loof and Luc (1990). Integrative diagnosis was completed with molecular data obtained, using D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA, ITS1-rDNA, partial 18S–rDNA and the partial mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxI). The phylogenetic relationships of this species with other Xiphinema spp. indicated that X. tica n. sp. was monophyletic to the other species from the morphospecies Group 4, Xiphinema oleae.

Keywords

Bayesian inference coxI D2-D3 ITS1 18S Longidorids Phylogeny rDNA Taxonomy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research was supported by grant of Universidad Nacional and FIDA (Fondo Institucional al Desarrollo Académico) from Costa Rica. The fourth author is a recipient of a “Juan de La Cierva” contract from Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain. The authors thank J. Martín Barbarroja and G. León Ropero from IAS-CSIC for the excellent technical assistance, and anonymous reviewers and editor for their valuable suggestions to improve the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors certify that 1) do not have any actual or potential conflict of interest, 2) the study described is original and has not been published previously, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, 3) all prevailing local, national and international regulations and conventions, and normal scientific ethical practices, have been respected. We also certify that all authors have reviewed the manuscript and approved the final version of manuscript before submission.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

No specific permits were required for the described fieldwork studies. Permission for sampling the crop orchards was granted by the landowner. The samples from wild plants were obtained in public areas, forests, and other natural areas studied and do not involve any species endangered or protected in Costa Rica. The sites are not protected in any way.

Informed consent

All the authors certify that the work carried out in this research followed the principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Peraza-Padilla
    • 1
  • Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete
    • 2
  • Tatiana Zamora-Araya
    • 1
  • Juan E. Palomares-Rius
    • 2
  • Pablo Castillo
    • 2
  • Antonio Archidona-Yuste
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Nematología, Escuela de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad NacionalHerediaCosta Rica
  2. 2.Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, ceiA3CórdobaSpain

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