Occurrence of maize lethal necrosis in Ecuador: a disease without boundaries?
- 566 Downloads
Maize plants displaying severe mosaic, chlorosis and, in some cases, necrosis were observed in two provinces of Ecuador. Shotgun sequencing of cDNA obtained from double-stranded RNA extracted from symptomatic samples revealed the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), two components of maize lethal necrosis. In 2015, a survey conducted in Los Ríos, Manabí and Guayas, major maize production areas in the country, showed that the two viruses were present in a significant number of plants. Mixed infections were detected and associated with severe symptoms. MCMV was also detected in two hybrid seed lots, a significant finding for the epidemiology of the disease in Ecuador. The report of maize lethal necrosis, today the most significant virus disease of maize, in Ecuador is of great concern for producers in the South American continent because of the potential of an epidemic as that observed in east Africa in recent years.
KeywordsMaize Corn Lethal Necrosis Ecuador South America SCMV MCMV
The authors would like to thank maize growers in Manabí, Los Ríos and Guayas, and the Ecuadorean Agency for Quality Assurance in Agriculture (AGROCALIDAD) for their support during field trips and providing hybrid seeds for testing.
- Carrera-Martinez, H., Lozoya-Saldana, H., Mendoza-Zamora, C., & Alvizo-Villasana, H. (1989). Lmmunoabsorcion enzimatica (ELISA) en la identificación y distribución del virus moteado clorótico del maiz (VMCM) en el estado de Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 7, 20–25.Google Scholar
- Castillo, J., & Hebert, T. T. (1974). Nueva enfermedad virosa afectando al maíz en el Peru. Fitopatologia, 9, 79–84.Google Scholar
- Doupnik, B. (1979). Status of corn lethal necrosis: 1979 update. Pages 16–24 in. Proc. 34th Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. Chicago. American Seed Trade Association, Corn and Sorghum Division.Google Scholar
- Lapierre, H., & Signoret, P. (2004). Virus and virus diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae). Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.Google Scholar
- Li, L., Wang, X., & Zhou, G. (2007). Analyses of maize embryo invasion by sugarcane mosaic virus. Plant Science, 172, 131–138.Google Scholar
- Morales, F. J., Arroyave, J. A., Castillo, J., & De Leon, C. (1999). Cytopathology of maize chlorotic mottle virus in Zea mays L. Maydica, 44, 231–235.Google Scholar
- Morillo, J. L. & Zambrano, R. (2013). Boletin Situacional de maiz duro seco en Ecuador. Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Acuacultura y Pesca. Online publication. http://sinagap.agricultura.gob.ec/phocadownloadpap/BoletinesCultivos/maizduro.pdf.
- Nelson, S., Brewbaker, J., & Hu, J. (2011). Maize chlorotic mottle. PD-79. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Online publication. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/PD-79.pdf.
- Niblett, C. L., & Claflin, L. E. (1978). Corn lethal necrosis a new virus disease of corn in Kansas. Plant Disease Report, 62, 15–19.Google Scholar
- Perera, M. F., Filipone, M. P., Noguera, A. S., Cuenya, M. I., & Castagnaro, A. P. (2012). An overview of the sugarcane mosaic disease in South America. Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology, 6, 98–107.Google Scholar
- Redinbaugh, M. G., & Pratt, R. C. (2008). Virus resistance. In S. Hake & J. Bennetzen (Eds.), The maize handbook (2nd ed., pp. 255–270). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Redinbaugh, M. G., & Zambrano, J. L. (2014). Control of virus diseases in maize. Advances in Virus Research, 90, 392–429.Google Scholar
- Teyssandier, E. E., Dal Bo, E., & Nome, S. F. (1981). Maize virus diseases in Argentina. Pages 93–99 in. Proc. Int. Maize Virus Dis. Colloq. Workshop. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH.Google Scholar