Advertisement

European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 143, Issue 2, pp 407–413 | Cite as

Resistance of strawberry genotypes to leather rot and crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum

  • Håvard EikemoEmail author
  • Arne Stensvand
Article

Abstract

Phytophthora cactorum causes crown rot of the strawberry rhizome and leather rot of strawberry fruit. Five strawberry cultivars, including two newly released cultivars (Nobel and Saga) from a Norwegian strawberry breeding program and eight selections from the same program, were tested for resistance to crown rot and leather rot and possible correlation in resistance between the two diseases. Strawberry fruit inoculated with P. cactorum had from below 40 to over 80 % of the surface covered with leather rot 4 days after inoculation. Cvs. Senga Sengana and Korona came out as relatively resistant (45 %), while cv. Polka was more susceptible (63 %). Nobel was the most susceptible to leather rot (83 %), while most selections and cv. Saga were intermediately resistant. For resistance against crown rot, the eight selections and two new cultivars varied between 3 and 6 on a scale from 1 to 8, where 1 was no disease development 4 weeks after inoculation and 8 was plant death 1 week after inoculation. Cvs. Nobel and Saga and the eight selections were intermediately to highly susceptible to crown rot, with the most resistant showing a level of resistance comparable to cv. Korona, which has previously been reported to be intermediately resistant. Cv. Nobel, which was most susceptible to leather rot was the second most tolerant to crown rot, and the selection that was most susceptible to crown rot was among the most resistant to leather rot. A Pearson correlation test showed that there was no correlation between resistance to crown rot and resistance to leather rot among the cultivars and selections included in this investigation.

Keywords

Cultivars Fragaria × ananassa Susceptibility Phytophthora cactorum Selections 

References

  1. Anderson, H. W. (1946). Strawberry fruit rots and their control. Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society, 129, 239–243.Google Scholar
  2. Browne, G., Becherer, H., McLaughlin, S., Fennimore, S., Duniway, J., Martin, F., Ajwa, H., Winterbottom, C. & Guererro, R. (2003). Integrated management of Phytophthora in strawberry without methyl bromide. Proceedings Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, November 3–6, 2003, San Diego, CA, USA, 128:1–2 (abstract). http://www.mbao.org/.
  3. Deutschmann, V. F. (1954). Eine Wurzelfäule an Erdbeeren, hervorgerufen durch Phytophthora cactorum (Leb et Cohn) Schroet. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst Stuttgart, 6, 7–9.Google Scholar
  4. Eikemo, H., & Stensvand, A. (2014). Sortsresistens mot lêrròte og rotstokkròte i jordbær [Resistance of strawberry cultivars to leather rot and crown rot]. Norsk Frukt og Bær, 17(3), 6–7 [in Norwegian].Google Scholar
  5. Eikemo, H., Stensvand, A., & Tronsmo, A. M. (2000). Evaluation of methods of screening strawberry cultivars for resistance to crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum. Annals of Applied Biology, 137, 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eikemo, H., Stensvand, A., Davik, J., & Tronsmo, A. M. (2003). Resistance to crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) in strawberry cultivars and in offspring from crosses between cultivars differing in susceptibility to the disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 142, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eikemo, H., Klemsdal, S. S., Riisberg, I., Bonants, P., Stensvand, A., & Tronsmo, A. M. (2004). Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry. Mycological Research, 108, 317–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis, M. A., & Groove, G. G. (1983). Leather rot in Ohio strawberries. Plant Disease, 67, 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Erwin, D. C., & Ribeiro, O. K. (1995). Phytophthora diseases world wide. St Paul: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  10. Golebniak, B., & Wachowiak, M. (1999). Development of leather rot symptoms on fruits of selected strawberry cultivars. Phytopathologia Polonica, 17, 5–11.Google Scholar
  11. Golebniak, B., Jarosz, A., & Olechnowicz, J. (2006). Susceptibility of strawberry cultivars to leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola). Phytopathologia Polonica, 39, 149–153.Google Scholar
  12. Hantula, J., Lilja, A., & Parikka, P. (1997). Genetic variation and host specificity of Phytophthora cactorum isolated in Europe. Mycological Research, 101, 565–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hantula, J., Lilja, A., Nuorteva, H., Parikka, P., & Werres, S. (2000). Pathogenicity, morphology and genetic variation of Phytophthora cactorum from strawberry, apple, rhododendron, and silver birch. Mycological Research, 104, 1062–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harris, D. C. (1986). Methods for preparing, estimating and diluting suspensions of Phytophthora cactorum zoospores. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 86, 482–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Labanowska, B. H., Meszka, B., Bielenin, A., & Olszak, R. (2004). A field evaluation of disease and insect resistance of several strawberry cultivars in Poland. Acta Horticulturae, 649, 255–258.Google Scholar
  16. Mircetich, J. S. M., Koball, D., Wakeman, R. J., Winterbottom, C. Q., Westerlund, F., Galper, L., Gargiulo, N. T., Welch, N., & Gubler, W. D. (1994). Comparative performance of different strawberry cultivars in field soil naturally infested by Phytophthora spp. and Verticillium sp. that was methyl bromide fumigated or nontreated. Proceedings Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, November 13–16, 1994, Kissimmee, FL, USA, 97:1–2 (abstract). http://www.mbao.org/.
  17. Olcott-Ried, B., & Moore, J. N. (1995). Field reactions of strawberry cultivars and selections to anthracnose fruit rot, leather rot and gray mold in Arkansas. Fruit Varieties Journal, 49, 4–13.Google Scholar
  18. Parikka, P. (1998). Mansikkalajikkeiden tyvimädänkestävyys testattu [Testing of resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown rot]. Puutarha & Kauppa, 7(12), 4–5 [In Finnish].Google Scholar
  19. Parikka, P. (2009). Screening plant resistance to Phytophthora cactorum with the dipping test. Acta Horticulturae, 842, 311–314.Google Scholar
  20. Perez-Jimenez, R. M., De Cal, A., Melgarejo, P., Cubero, J., Soria, C., Zea-Bonilla, T., & Larena, I. (2012). Resistance of several strawberry cultivars against three different pathogens. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 10, 502–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pettitt, T. R., & Pegg, G. F. (1994). Sources of crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) infection in strawberry and the effect of cold storage on susceptibility to the disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 125, 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rose, D. H. (1924). Leather rot of strawberries. Journal of Agricultural Research, 28, 357–376.Google Scholar
  23. Schafleitner, S., Bonnet, A., Pedeprat, N., Rocca, D., Chartier, P., & Denoyes, B. (2013). Genetic variation of resistance of the cultivated strawberry to crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum. Journal of Berry Research, 3, 79–91.Google Scholar
  24. Seemüller, E. (1977). Resistenzverhalten von Erdbeersorten gegen den Erreger der Rhizomfäule, Phytophthora cactorum. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst (Braunschweig), 29, 124–126.Google Scholar
  25. Seemüller, E., & Schmidle, A. (1979). Einfluss der herkunft von Phytophthora cactorum-Isolaten auf ihre Virulenz an Apfelrinde, Erdbeerrhizomen und Erdbeerfrüchten. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 94, 218–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Simpson, D. W., Bell, J. A., & Harris, D. C. (1994). Breeding for resistance to fungal diseases in strawberry. In H. Schmidt & M. Kellerhals (Eds.), Progress in temperate fruit breeding (pp. 63–66). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Van der Scheer, H. A. T. (1971). Isolation of Phytophthora cactorum from soil in orchards and strawberry fields and differences in pathogenicity to apple. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 77, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plant Health and Plant ProtectionNorwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental ResearchÅsNorway

Personalised recommendations