European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 140, Issue 4, pp 677–688 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial spot of tomato in Ethiopia

  • Misrak Kebede
  • Sujan Timilsina
  • Amare Ayalew
  • Belayneh Admassu
  • Neha Potnis
  • Gerald V. Minsavage
  • Erica M. Goss
  • Jason C. Hong
  • Amanda Strayer
  • Mathews Paret
  • Jeffrey B. Jones
  • Gary E. ValladEmail author
Original Research


Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), we identified a diverse group of Xanthomonas strains isolated from central Ethiopia. None of the strains were sensitive to copper or streptomycin. Multilocus sequence analysis was used to compare Ethiopian strains with representative Xanthomonas strains from a worldwide collection based on DNA sequences of six housekeeping genes (lacF, lepA, gyrB, fusA, gltA and gapA) and hrpB genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences showed that X. gardneri, X. vesicatoria and X. perforans were associated with BST in Ethiopia, whereas Xanthomonas euvesicatoria was absent from the Ethiopian sample. There was no genetic diversity among the isolated strains belonging to X. gardneri and X. perforans. However, two X. vesicatoria haplotypes were identified indicating at least two different sources of introduction of X. vesicatoria to Ethiopia. All of the X. perforans strains were only pathogenic on tomato and were T3 strains with the exception of one identified as tomato race 4 (T4). The X. gardneri and X. vesicatoria strains were tomato race 2 (T2), but were variable in pepper race determinations indicating variation in effectors among strains.


Bacterial characterization Multilocus sequence analysis 



Financial supports of Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) for research and Dr. J. B. Jones for identification of bacterial isolates were greatly acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Misrak Kebede
    • 1
  • Sujan Timilsina
    • 2
  • Amare Ayalew
    • 1
  • Belayneh Admassu
    • 3
  • Neha Potnis
    • 2
  • Gerald V. Minsavage
    • 2
  • Erica M. Goss
    • 4
  • Jason C. Hong
    • 5
  • Amanda Strayer
    • 2
  • Mathews Paret
    • 6
  • Jeffrey B. Jones
    • 2
  • Gary E. Vallad
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Plant ScienceHaramaya UniversityDire DawaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.International Institute of Tropical AgricultureNairobiKenya
  4. 4.Department of Plant Pathology and Emerging Pathogens InstituteUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.United States Department of AgricultureFort PierceUSA
  6. 6.North Florida Research and Education CenterUniversity of FloridaQuincyUSA
  7. 7.Gulf Coast Research and Education CenterWimaumaUSA

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