European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 139, Issue 4, pp 773–783 | Cite as

Anthracnose on almond in Australia:disease progress and inoculum sources of Colletotrichum acutatum

  • S. F. McKay
  • D. Shtienberg
  • M. Sedgley
  • E. S. Scott
Article

Abstract

Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, is an important disease of almond and has caused significant economic losses in California, Israel and Australia. Anthracnose development was monitored for three growing seasons in an almond orchard in South Australia on two almond cultivars, Price and Nonpareil, with up to 80 % of fruit affected in 2004. Lesions, typical of anthracnose, formed on young developing fruit and symptoms continued to appear until the fruit were ca 20 mm long, after which no further lesions developed. Symptoms were observed on leaves, woody tissue showed signs of dieback, but blossom blight was not observed. Maximum disease incidenceperfor, man and Relative Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (RAUDPC) were significantly larger for Price than Nonpareil for each season, but differences in the apparent rates of infection for both cultivars were insignificant for the three growing seasons. The apparent rates of infection were correlated with rainfall and daily temperature for the three years combined but there was no correlation between maximum disease incidence or RAUDPC and these environmental parameters. Considerably more mummified fruit remained on the trees of cv. Price than Nonpareil each year; however, there was no correlation between the number of mummified fruit in one season and maximum disease incidence, RAUDPC or apparent rate of infection, in the following season. C. acutatum was recovered from mummified fruit, peduncles and bark, from both Price and Nonpareil, every month throughout a year-long sampling period. C. acutatum was also recovered from asymptomatic leaves, fruit, bark, buds and blossom, however, less frequently and at lower rates than from mummified fruit and peduncles. Recovery was consistently greater from Price than from Nonpareil for all tissues.

Keywords

Anthracnose Almond Colletotrichum acutatum Epidemiology 

Reference

  1. Adaskaveg, J., & Förster, H. (2000). Occurrence and management of anthracnose epidemics caused by Colletotrichum species on fruit tree crops in California. In D. Prusky, S. Freeman, & M. B. Dickman (Eds.), Colletotrichum: Host Specificity, Pathology and Host-pathogen Interaction (pp. 317–336). St. Paul: The American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adaskaveg, J. E., & Hartin, R. J. (1997). Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates causing anthracnose of almond and peach in California. Phytopathology, 87, 979–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adaskaveg, J., Förster, H., Hartin, R. J., Connell, J. H., Teviotdale, B., & Duncan, R. (1998). Almond anthracnose in California - A new pre- and postharvest fungal disease outbreak. Acta Horticulturae, 470, 553–561.Google Scholar
  4. Diéguez-Uribeondo, J., Förster, H., & Adaskaveg, J. (2011). Effect of wetness duration and temperature on the development of anthracnose on selected almond tissue and comparison of cultivar susceptibility. Phytopathology, 101, 1013–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Förster, H., & Adaskaveg, J. E. (1999). Identification of subpopulations of Colletotrichum acutatum and epidemiology of almond anthracnose in California. Phytopathology, 89, 1056–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fry, W. E. (1978). Quantification of general resistance of potato cultivars and fungicide effects for integrated control of potato late blight. Phytopathology, 68, 1650–1655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hall, B. H., Jones, M. K., & Wicks, T. J. (1998). First report of anthracnose of almond in South Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 27, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leandro, L. F. S., Gleason, M. L., Nutter Jnr, F. W., Wegulo, S. N., & Dixon, P. M. (2001). Germination and sporulation of Colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless strawberry leaves. Phytopathology, 91, 659–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Leandro, L. F. S., Gleason, M. L., Nutter Jnr, F. W., Wegulo, S. N., & Dixon, P. M. (2003). Influence of temperature and wetness duration on conidia and appressoria of Colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless strawberry leaves. Phytopathology, 93, 513–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McKay, S. F., Freeman, S., Minz, D., Maymon, M., Sedgley, M., Collins, G. C., & Scott, E. S. (2009). Morphological, genetic and pathogenic characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum, the cause of anthracnose of almond in Australia. Phytopathology, 99, 985–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McMichael, P. (2000). HRDC Project NT 98004 report. The control and management of anthracnose of almonds. Parkside, South Australia: Scholefield Robinson Horticultural Services Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Moral, J., & Trapero, A. (2012). Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. Phytopathology, 102, 982–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moral, J., Bouhmidi, K., & Trapero, A. (2008). Influence of fruit maturity, cultivar susceptibility, and inoculation method on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum. Plant Disease, 92, 1421–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moral, J., de Oliveira, R., & Trapero, A. (2009). Elucidation of the disease cycle of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. Phytopathology, 99, 548–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moral, J., Jurado-Bello, J., Sanchez, M. I., de Oliveira, R., & Trapero, A. (2012). Effect of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. Phytopathology, 102, 974–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shabi, E., & Katan, T. (1983). Occurrence and control of anthracnose of almond in Israel. Plant Disease, 67, 1364–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shaner, G., & Finney, R. E. (1977). The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology, 67, 1051–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sutton, T. B. and Clayton, C. N. (1972). Role and survival of Monilinia fructicola in blighted peach branches. Phytopathology, 62, 1369–1373.Google Scholar
  19. Talhinhas, P., Mota-Capita, C., Martins, S., Ramos, A. P., Neves-Martins, J., Guerra-Guimara L., Va'rzea, V., Silva, M. C., Sreenivasaprasad, S. & Oliveira, H. (2011). Epidemiology, histopathology and aetiology of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum andC. gloeosporioides in Portugal. Plant Pathology, 60, 483–495.Google Scholar
  20. Timmer, L. W., & Brown, G. E. (2000). Biology and control of anthracnose diseases of citrus. In D. Prusky, S. Freeman, & M. B. Dickman (Eds.), Colletotrichum: Host Specificity, Pathology and Host-pathogen Interaction (pp. 300–316). St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  21. Van der Plank, J. E. (1963). Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Waller, J. M. (1992). Colletotrichum: diseases of perennial and other cash crops. Pages 167-185 in. Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control (Eds, Bailey, J.A. and Jeger, M.J.). Oxon, UK: CAB International.Google Scholar
  23. Yoshida, S., Tsukiboshi, T., Shinohara, H., Koitabashi, M., & Tsushima, S. (2007). Occurrence and development of Colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless blueberry bushes. Plant Pathology, 56, 871–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. F. McKay
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. Shtienberg
    • 3
  • M. Sedgley
    • 4
  • E. S. Scott
    • 2
  1. 1.South Australian Research and Development InstituteAdelaideUSA
  2. 2.School of Agriculture, Food and WineThe University of Adelaide, Waite CampusOsmondAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Plant Pathology and Weed ResearchARO, The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  4. 4.Faculty of Arts and SciencesUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations