European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 138, Issue 3, pp 513–527 | Cite as

Effects of plant pathogens on population dynamics and community composition in grassland ecosystems: two case studies

  • M. J. Jeger
  • N. K. G. Salama
  • M. W. Shaw
  • F. van den Berg
  • F. van den Bosch
Article

Abstract

Grassland ecosystems comprise a major portion of the earth’s terrestrial surface, ranging from high-input cultivated monocultures or simple species-mixtures to relatively unmanaged but dynamic systems. Plant pathogens are a component of these systems with their impact dependent on many interacting factors, including grassland species population dynamics and community composition, the topics covered in this paper. Plant pathogens are affected by these interactions and also act reciprocally by modifying their nature. We briefly review these features of disease in grasslands and then introduce the 150-year long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE) at Rothamsted Research in the UK. We then consider in detail two plant-pathogen systems present in the PGE, Tragopogon pratensis-Puccinia hysterium and Holcus lanata-Puccinia coronata. These two systems have very different life history characteristics: the first, a biennial member of the Asteraceae infected by its host-specific, systemic rust; the second, a perennial grass infected by a host-non-specific rust. We illustrate how observational, experimental and modelling studies can contribute to a better understanding of population dynamics, competitive interactions and evolutionary outcomes. With Tragopogon pratensis-Puccinia hysterium, characterised as an “outbreak” species in the PGE, we show that pathogen-induced mortality is unlikely to be involved in host population regulation; and that the presence of even a short-lived seed-bank can affect the qualitative outcomes of the host-pathogen dynamics. With Holcus lanata-Puccinia coronata, we show how nutrient conditions can affect adaptation in terms of host defence mechanisms, and that co-existence of competing species affected by a common generalist pathogen is unlikely.

Keywords

Grassland species dynamics Pathogen dynamics Pathogen-induced mortality Seed bank Nutrient supply Competitive interactions Evolution of host defence 

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Copyright information

© KNPV 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Jeger
    • 1
  • N. K. G. Salama
    • 1
  • M. W. Shaw
    • 2
  • F. van den Berg
    • 3
  • F. van den Bosch
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Ecology and Evolution and Centre for Environmental PolicyImperial College LondonAscotUK
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  3. 3.Biomathematics and BioinformaticsRothamsted ResearchHarpendenUK

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