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European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 137, Issue 2, pp 363–376 | Cite as

Detection and characterization of fungicide resistant phenotypes of Botrytis cinerea in lettuce crops in Greece

  • Michael ChatzidimopoulosEmail author
  • Dimitris Papaevaggelou
  • Athanassios Christos Pappas
Article

Abstract

The development of resistance to chemical control agents needs continuous monitoring in Botrytis cinerea. 790 isolates from lettuce and other vegetable crops were collected from six widely separated sites in Greece and tested for their sensitivity to 11 fungicides from nine unrelated chemical groups. 44 of the isolates exhibited multiple resistance to fenhexamid (hydroxyanilides), azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (QoI’s), boscalid (SDHI’s), cyprodinil and pyrimethanil (anilinopyrimidines), fludioxonil (phenylpyrroles), carbendazim (benzimidazoles) and iprodione (dicarboximides). Thirty per cent of such phenotypes were detected in an experimental glasshouse with lettuce crops, the third year after commencing fungicide applications. The average resistance factor (Rf) for mycelial growth to fenhexamid, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, was over 40, 1,000, 100, 700 and 50, respectively. Some strains with high resistance to anilinopyrimidines (14 %) or moderate to fludioxonil (7 %) were detected even in isolates collected from vegetable crops prior to commercial use of these fungicides in Greece. Isolates with fludioxonil moderate resistance and fenhexamid high resistance, were detected for the first time in Greece. The results suggested the high risk in chemical control of grey mould due to development of resistance to most fungicides with site-specific modes of action. Isolates with resistance to fluazinam (phenylpyridinamines) and to chlorothalonil (phthalonitriles) were not found. The inclusion of appropriate multi-site inhibitors like chlorothalonil in fungicide anti-resistance strategies was indispensable.

Keywords

Boscalid Cyprodinil Fenhexamid Fludioxonil Pyraclostrobin Pyrimethanil 

Abbreviations

Ani

anilinopyrimidines

Ben

benzimidazoles

Bos

boscalid

Chlo

chlorothalonil

Dic

dicarboximides

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

ED50

effective dose inhibiting the 50 % of mycelial growth or spore germination

Flu

fluazinam

HR

highly resistant

Hyd

hydroxyanilides

MEA

malt extract agar

MIC

minimal inhibitory concentration

MR

moderately resistant

PDA

potato dextrose agar

Phen

phenylpyrroles

QoI’s

quinone outside inhibitors, strobilurins

Resistance factor (Rf)

average ED50 of resistant isolates/average ED50 of sensitive (wild type) isolates tested

R

resistant

S

sensitive

SDHI’s

succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, carboxamides

SHAM

salicylhydroxamic acid

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Copyright information

© KNPV 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Chatzidimopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dimitris Papaevaggelou
    • 1
  • Athanassios Christos Pappas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, Laboratory of Plant PathologyUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece

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