Fusarium temperatum, a mycotoxin-producing pathogen of maize
In a recent study, a population of Fusarium strains isolated from maize in Belgium was described as a new species, F. temperatum, that is morphologically similar and phylogenetically closely related to F. subglutinans, a species in the American clade of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. In fields, the F. temperatum:F. subglutinans ratio was very high, suggesting that F. temperatum outcompetes its sister species F. subglutinans. This raised the question whether this novel species contributes to the final rot symptoms observed on maize plants at harvest, as well as to the potential mycotoxin contamination. Results of the pathogenicity tests by soil and toothpick inoculation demonstrate the ability of F. temperatum to cause seedling malformation and stalk rot under greenhouse conditions. Screening of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins showed the ability of F. temperatum to produce moniliformin, beauvericin, enniatins and fumonisin B1. The results indicate that F. temperatum can produce mycotoxins and cause maize diseases and, therefore, poses a potential risk to maize production and to the safety of human food and animal feed.
KeywordsFusarium spp. Maize Mycotoxin profile Soil inoculation Toothpick inoculation UPLC-MS/MS
- Ares, J. L. A., Ferro, R. C. A., Ramirez, L. C., & Gonzales, J. M. (2004). Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a maize root and stalk rot pathogen isolated from lodged plants in northwest Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 249–252.Google Scholar
- Bottalico, A. (1998). Fusarium diseases of cereals: species complex and related mycotoxin profiles, in Europe. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80, 85–103.Google Scholar
- Desjardins, A. E. (2006). Fusarium mycotoxins: chemistry, genetics and biology. Saint Paul: APS.Google Scholar
- Kvas, M., Marasas, W. F. O., Wingfield, B. D., Wingfield, M. J., & Steenkamp, E. T. (2009). Diversity and evolution of Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. Fungal Diversity, 34, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Leslie, J. F., & Summerell, B. A. (2006). The Fusarium laboratory manual. Ames: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Leslie, J. F., Zeller, K. A., Logrieco, A., Mulè, G., Moretti, A., & Ritieni, A. (2004). Species diversity of and toxin production by Gibberella fujikuroi species complex strains isolated from native prairie grasses in Kansas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 2254–2262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lew, H., Adler, A., & Edinger, W. (1997). Dynamics of the Fusarium toxin distribution in maize plants affected by stalk rot. Cereal Research Communications, 25, 467–470.Google Scholar
- Marasas, W. F. O., Nelson, P. E., & Toussoun, T. A. (1984). Toxigenic Fusarium species: identity and mycotoxicology. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
- Moretti, A., Mule, G., Ritieni, A., & Logrieco, A. (2007). Further data on the production of beauvericin, enniatins and fusaproliferin and toxicity to Artemia salina by Fusarium species of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 118, 158–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nelson, P. E., Toussoun, T. A., & Marasas, W. F. O. (1983). Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
- Picot, A., Hourcade-Marcolla, D., Barreau, C., Pinson-Gadais, L., Caron, D., Richard-Forget, F., & Lannou, C. (2011). Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum in maize ears and consequences for fungal development and mycotoxin accumulation. Plant Pathology. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02503.x.