European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 134, Issue 3, pp 445–449 | Cite as

Phylodynamics of Pepino mosaic virus in Spain

  • P. GómezEmail author
  • R. N. Sempere
  • M. A. Aranda
  • S. F. Elena
Short Communications


Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe economic losses in tomato crops in the Northern hemisphere. After its first identification, the new viral strain PepMV-CH2 has been isolated in several countries worldwide. In order to further understand the evolutionary dynamics of PepMV before and after PepMV-CH2 emergence, we analyzed a collection of PepMV isolates from southeastern Spain, estimating the rate of PepMV molecular evolution and the coalescence process for the effective number of PepMV infections using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach. Our results show that the rate of PepMV molecular evolution was 5.570 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year, a value which is approximately an order of magnitude higher than the rates recently reported for other plant RNA viruses. Moreover, PepMV-CH2 was estimated to have originated in 2000, coincident with the onset of PepMV-CH2 infections in southeastern Spain, its population following now an expansion process. This further illustrates that genetic and ecological interactions among different viral strains can modulate the evolutionary dynamics of PepMV and determine its epidemiological profile.


Evolutionary dynamics Molecular epidemiology PepMV Rate of molecular evolution Tomato disease Virus evolution 



We thank an anonymous reviewer for very insightful comments. Work in Murcia was supported by grant EUI2009-04009 (PLANT-KBBE2009 program, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). Work in Valencia was supported by grant BFU2009-06993 (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). P.G. was supported by a “Juan de la Cierva” post-doctoral contract from (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain). R.N.S. was the recipient of a graduate fellowship from Fundación Seneca (Murcia, Spain).

Supplementary material

10658_2012_19_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (1.1 mb)
Figure S1 Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. This tree was obtained using the TN93 + G model of nucleotide substitutions (Tamura and Nei 1993); henceforth, branch lengths are proportional to genetic distances. Numbers on the nodes represent bootstrap value supports (from 5,000 pseudoreplicates). Only values >90 % are shown (JPEG 1177 kb)


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Copyright information

© KNPV 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Gómez
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • R. N. Sempere
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. A. Aranda
    • 1
  • S. F. Elena
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)Campus Universitario de EspinardoMurciaSpain
  2. 2.Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of BiosciencesUniversity of ExeterPenrynUK
  3. 3.Bioprodin SL, Edificio CEEIMMurciaSpain
  4. 4.Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP). CSIC-UPVValènciaSpain
  5. 5.The Santa Fe InstituteSanta FeUSA

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