European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 132, Issue 3, pp 323–340 | Cite as

Global incidence of wheat rusts and powdery mildew during 1969–2010 and durability of resistance of winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1

  • Alexey MorgounovEmail author
  • Hale Ann Tufan
  • Ram Sharma
  • Beyhan Akin
  • Ahmet Bagci
  • Hans-Joachim Braun
  • Yuksel Kaya
  • Mesut Keser
  • Thomas S. Payne
  • Kai Sonder
  • Robert McIntosh


Disease incidence and severity was studied for winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1 and susceptible checks based on data from international nurseries from 1969 to 2010 and from 51 countries across major winter wheat production regions totalling 1,047 reports. The frequency of leaf rust and stripe rust occurrence was stable over time with marked increases in severity in 2001–2010 especially in Europe and Central and West Asia. Substantial global reductions in stem rust occurrence were recorded and attributed primarily to use of resistance genes although the recent emergence of race Ug99 makes wheat more vulnerable. The occurrence of powdery mildew remained globally stable over time. It was the most important foliar disease in Western and Southern Europe, where the frequency was very high for all time periods coupled with slight increases in severity during 2001–2010. The durable resistance of variety Bezostaya 1 to all four diseases was demonstrated in the study using comparisons of disease severities of Bezostaya 1 and the most susceptible entries. The Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 pleiotrophic set possessed by Bezostaya 1 is currently an important target for selection because it is now amenable to molecular selection. Increased use of genes like Lr34 combined with strategies to minimize cultivation of extremely susceptible varieties will contribute to long term maintenance of low and non-damaging disease levels. The durable disease resistance of Bezostaya 1, combined with its adaptability and good end-use quality, was a significant reason for its huge impact in agriculture over the last 50 years.


Breeding Cereals Climate change Diseases Durable resistance 



Central and West Asia and North Africa


Most susceptible genotype


Leaf rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici)


Stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici)


Powdery mildew pathogen (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici)



This paper is dedicated to the many scientists−past and present−who provided almost 40 years of nursery data that permitted this study to be undertaken. The selfless efforts of international center staff and scientists of many national wheat programs in ensuring the continuity of international nurseries is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© KNPV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexey Morgounov
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hale Ann Tufan
    • 2
  • Ram Sharma
    • 3
  • Beyhan Akin
    • 1
  • Ahmet Bagci
    • 4
  • Hans-Joachim Braun
    • 5
  • Yuksel Kaya
    • 6
  • Mesut Keser
    • 7
  • Thomas S. Payne
    • 5
  • Kai Sonder
    • 5
  • Robert McIntosh
    • 8
  1. 1.CIMMYT P.K.AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.School of International DevelopmentUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  3. 3.ICARDATashkentUzbekistan
  4. 4.Selcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  5. 5.CIMMYTMexicoD.F. Mexico
  6. 6.Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research InstituteKonyaTurkey
  7. 7.ICARDAAnkaraTurkey
  8. 8.University of Sydney Plant Breeding Institute CobbittyNarellanAustralia

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