European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 129, Issue 1, pp 81–88 | Cite as

Effect of Slovenian climatic conditions on the development and survival of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica

  • Polona StrajnarEmail author
  • Saša Širca
  • Matej Knapič
  • Gregor Urek
Original Research


Meloidogyne ethiopica is a tropical root-knot nematode species which has recently been found in Europe. We examined its ability to survive in open fields located in regions with sub-Mediterranean and continental European climates. The outdoor microplot experiment consisted of two locations and lasted three growing and two winter seasons. It was demonstrated that M. ethiopica was able to survive at both locations and also that it retained its infection ability although temperatures below zero were recorded. The correct species was confirmed after each winter season by isozyme electrophoresis. Furthermore, the influence of temperature on the reproduction cycle of M. ethiopica was investigated. Meloidogyne ethiopica required 67, 48 and 36 days to complete the reproduction cycle at mean daily temperatures of 18.3, 22.7 and 26.3°C, respectively. At 13.9°C, M. ethiopica was not able to reproduce. The data obtained from these experiments were used to develop a correlation between temperature and the time needed for M. ethiopica to complete a reproduction cycle using a mathematical equation. Furthermore, eight vegetable crops that are important for agricultural production in Slovenia were tested for their suitability as hosts for M. ethiopica.


Host status Meloidogyne Open field Reproduction cycle Survival 



This work is the result of research which was financially supported by the grant L4-1021 of the Slovenian Research Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic of Slovenia.


  1. Aballay, E., Persson, P., & Mårtensson, A. (2009). Plant-parasitic nematodes in chilean vineyards. Nematropica, 39, 85–97.Google Scholar
  2. Carneiro, R. M. D. G., Gomes, C. B., Almeida, M. R. A., Gomes, A. C. M. M., & Martins, I. (2003). First record of Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968 on kiwi in Brazil and reaction on different plant species. Nematologia Brasileira, 27, 151–158.Google Scholar
  3. Carneiro, R. M. D. G., Randing, O., Almeida, M. R. A., & Gomes, A. C. M. M. (2004). Additional information on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968 (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising kiwi fruit and grape-vine from Brazil and Chile. Nematology, 6, 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carneiro, R. M. D. G., Almeida, M. R. A., Cofcewicz, E. T., Magunacelaya, J. C., & Aballay, E. (2007). Meloidogyne ethiopica, a major root-knot nematode parasitising Vitis vinifera and other crops in Chile. Nematology, 9, 635–641.Google Scholar
  5. Ehwaeti, M. E., Phillips, M. S., & Trudgill, D. L. (1998). The viability of Meloidogyne incognita eggs released from egg masses of different ages using different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. Nematologica, 44, 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eisenback, J. D., & Hirschmann, H. T. (1991). Root-Knot nematodes: Meloidogyne species and races. In W. R. Nickle (Ed.), Manual of agricultural nematology (pp. 191–274). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Esbenshade, P. R., & Triantaphyllou, A. C. (1985). Use of enzyme phenotypes for identification of Meloidogyne species. Journal of Nematology, 17, 6–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahey, J., Zalcmann, A., & Talalay, P. (2001). The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry, 56, 5–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferris, H., Carlson, H. L., Viglierchio, D. R., Westerdahl, B. B., Wu, F. W., Anderson, C. E., et al. (1993). Host status of selected crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi. Supplement to Journal of Nematology, 25, 849–857.Google Scholar
  10. Hržič, A. (1973). Extraction of nematodes from soil with whirling motion. Zaštita bilja, 122, 53–60.Google Scholar
  11. Hunt, D. J., & Handoo, Z. A. (2009). Taxonomy, identification and principal species. In R. N. Perry, M. Moens, & J. L. Starr (Eds.), Root-knot nematodes (pp. 55–88). London: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hussey, R. S., & Barker, K. R. (1973). A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp. including a new technique. Plant Disease Reporter, 57, 1025–1028.Google Scholar
  13. Liebanas, G., & Castillo, P. (2004). Host suitability of some crucifers for root-knot nematodes in southern Spain. Nematology, 6, 125–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lima, E. A., Mattos, J. K., Moita, A. W., Carneiro, R. G., & Carneiro, R. M. D. G. (2009). Host status of different crops for Meloidogyne ethiopica control. Tropical Plant Pathology, 34, 152–157.Google Scholar
  15. Madulu, J. D., & Trudgill, D. L. (1994). Influence of temperature on the development and survival of Meloidogyne javanica. Nematologica, 40, 230–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McClure, M. A., Kruk, T. H., & Misaghi, I. (1973). A method for obtaining quantities of clean Meloidogyne eggs. Journal of Nematology, 5, 230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mojtahedi, H., Santo, G. S., Wilson, J. H., & Hang, A. N. (1993). Managing Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potato with rapeseed as green manure. Plant disease, 77, 42–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. O’Bannon, J. H. (1975). Nematode survey in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and FAO, Rome, [unpubl.].Google Scholar
  19. Strajnar, P., Širca, S., Geric Stare, B., & Urek, G. (2009). Characterization of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, from Slovenia. Russian Journal of Nematology, 17, 135–142.Google Scholar
  20. Širca, S., Urek, G., & Karssen, G. (2004). First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica on tomato in Slovenia. Plant disease, 88, 680.Google Scholar
  21. Trudgill, D. L. (1997). Parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); how can these biotrophic endoparasites have such an enormous host range? Plant Pathology, 46, 26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Whitehead, A. G. (1968). Taxonomy of Meloidogyne (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) with description of four new species. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 31, 263–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Whitehead, A. G. (1969). The distribution of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in tropical Africa. Nematologica, 15, 315–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Polona Strajnar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saša Širca
    • 1
  • Matej Knapič
    • 1
  • Gregor Urek
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Protection DepartmentAgricultural Institute of SloveniaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations