European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 128, Issue 4, pp 417–421 | Cite as

Mechanical transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid between plants of Brugmansia suaveoles, Solanum jasminoides and potatoes and tomatoes

  • J. Th. J. VerhoevenEmail author
  • L. Hüner
  • M. Virscek Marn
  • I. Mavric Plesko
  • J. W. Roenhorst


Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) has been recently found in many solanaceous ornamental plant species. This study reports on the effectiveness of mechanical transmission between Brugmansia suaveolens, Solanum jasminoides, potato and tomato. Inoculation with ‘infected’ plant sap diluted in water, rubbing with contaminated finger tips and cutting with contaminated razor blades all resulted in transmission of PSTVd. Temperature, plant species and source of inoculum were found to be critical factors. An average temperature of 15°C only resulted in a few infections, whereas transmission at 20 and 25°C was more successful. Tomatoes were more susceptible to PSTVd than B. suaveolens, S. jasminoides and potatoes. Furthermore, S. jasminoides was a better source of inoculum than B. suaveolens. No transmission was obtained after repeated addition of inocula to tomato roots. These results indicate that PSTVd can be transmitted between plant species in practice by crop handling.


PSTVd Pospiviroid Inoculation Inoculum Susceptibility Temperature 



We thank our colleagues from the National Reference Laboratory of the Netherlands Plant Protection Service for their practical support. The work was partially performed in the frame of EU phytosanitary ERA-net EUPHRESCO project “Detection and Epidemiology of Pospiviroids” and financed by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and the Slovenian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food.


  1. Barbosa, C. J., Pina, J. A., Pérez-Panadés, J., Bernad, L., Serra, P., Navarro, L., et al. (2005). Mechanical transmission of citrus viroids. Plant Disease, 89, 749–754. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boonham, N., Gonzáles Pérez, L., Mendez, M. S., Lilia Peralta, E., Blockly, A., Walsh, K., et al. (2004). Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid. Journal of Virological Methods, 116, 139–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Diener, T. O. (1999). Viroids and the nature of viroid diseases. Archives of Virology. Supplementum, 15, 203–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Di Serio, F. (2007). Identification and characterization of potato spindle tuber viroid infecting Solanum jasminoides and S. rantonnetii in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 89, 297–300.Google Scholar
  5. Flores, R., Hernández, C., Martínez de Alba, A. E., Daròs, J. A., & Di Serio, F. (2005a). Viroids and viroid-host interactions. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43, 117–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Flores, R., Randles, J. W., Owens, R. A., Bar-Joseph, M., & Diener, T. O. (2005b). Subviral agents: viroids. In C. M. Fauquet, M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, & L. A. Ball (Eds.), Virus taxonomy. Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (pp. 1147–1161). San Diego: Elsevier Academic.Google Scholar
  7. Grasmick, M. E., & Slack, S. A. (1985). Symptom expression enhanced and low concentrations of potato spindle tuber viroid amplified in tomato with high light intensity and temperature. Plant Disease, 69, 49–51.Google Scholar
  8. KNMI daily meteorological data (n.d). Downloaded on 24 January 2009, from
  9. Navarro, B., Silletti, M. R., Trisciuzzi, V. N., & Di Serio, F. (2009). Identification and characterization of Potato spindle tuber viroid infecting tomato in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91, 607–610.Google Scholar
  10. Owens, R. A. (2007). Potato spindle tuber viroid: the simplicity paradox resolved? Molecular Plant Pathology, 8, 549–560.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Owens, R. A., & Verhoeven, J Th J. (2009). Potato spindle tuber. The Plant Health Instructor. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2009-0804-01.Google Scholar
  12. Sänger, H. L., & Ramm, K. (1975). Radioactive labelling of viroid-RNA. In R. Markham, D. R. Davies, D. A. Hopwood, & R. W. Horne (Eds.), Modification of the information content of plant cells (pp. 229–252). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  13. Seigner, L., Kappen, M., Huber, C., Kistler, M., & Köhler, D. (2008). First trials for transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid from ornamental Solanaceae to tomato using RT-PCR and an mRNA based internal positive control for detection. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 115, 97–101.Google Scholar
  14. Singh, R. P., & Dilworth, A. D. (2009). Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid in the ornamental plant Vinca minor and its transmission through tomato seed. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123, 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Verhoeven, J. Th. J., & Roenhorst, J. W. (2010). High stability of original predominant pospiviroid genotypes upon mechanical inoculation from ornamentals to potato and tomato. Archives of Virology, 155, 269–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Verhoeven, J. Th. J., Jansen, C.C.C., Willemen, T. M., Kox, L. F. F., Owens, R. A., & Roenhorst, J. W. (2004). Natural infections of tomato by Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Potato spindle tuber viroid and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110, 823–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Verhoeven, J. Th. J., Jansen, C.C.C., & Roenhorst, J. W. (2008). First report of pospiviroids infecting ornamentals in the Netherlands: Citrus exocortis viroid in Verbena sp., Potato spindle tuber viroid in Brugmansia suaveolens and Solanum jasminoides, and Tomato apical stunt viroid in Cestrum sp. Plant Pathology, 57, 399.Google Scholar
  18. Verhoeven, J. Th. J., Jansen, C.C.C., Botermans, M., & Roenhorst, J.W. (2010). Epidemiological evidence that vegetatively propagated, solanaceous plant species act as sources of Potato spindle tuber viroid inoculum for tomato. Plant Pathology, 59, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Th. J. Verhoeven
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Hüner
    • 1
  • M. Virscek Marn
    • 2
  • I. Mavric Plesko
    • 2
  • J. W. Roenhorst
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Protection ServiceWageningenNetherlands
  2. 2.Agricultural Institute of SloveniaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations