European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 199–206 | Cite as

Population structure of Cylindrocladium parasiticum infecting peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Georgia, USA

  • Louwrance P. Wright
  • Andrew J. Davis
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
  • Pedro W. Crous
  • Tim Brenneman
  • Michael J. Wingfield
Article

Abstract

Cylindrocladium parasiticum is an important pathogen of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) causing the disease Cylindrocladium black rot. The genetic structure of this haploid pathogen was determined for populations associated with peanut in Georgia, USA. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine genetic and genotypic diversity among three sub-populations representing the geographic distribution of peanut production in Georgia. Among 200 isolates collected, only 10 unique multilocus haplotypes were identified, with one multilocus haplotype occurring 176 times. Although no evidence for random mating was observed, the existence of loops in a constructed haplotype network hint at the possibility of recombination events. The absence of random mating might therefore be attributed to the homothallic nature of C. parasiticum as well as the clonality of the population, without excluding the possible occurrence of recombination. Cylindrocladium parasiticum thus appears to consist of a genetically homogeneous population throughout Georgia with mainly clonal reproduction or inbreeding contributing to the observed population genetic structure.

Keywords

Calonectria ilicicola Haplotype network Homothallic Microsatellites Population genetics Simple sequence repeat (SSR) 

Abbreviations

CBR

Cylindrocladium black rot

MLH

Multilocus haplotypes

IMH

Indistinguishable multilocus haplotypes

DMH

Distinguishable multilocus haplotypes

References

  1. Agapow, P.-M., & Burt, A. (2001). Indices of multilocus linkage disequilibrium. Molecular Ecology Notes, 1, 101–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfieri, S. A., El-Gholl, N. E., & Schoulties, C. L. (1982). Homothallism in Calonectria ilicicola. Mycologia, 74, 513–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandelt, H.-J., Forster, P., & Röhl, A. (1999). Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16, 37–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, D. K., & Sobers, E. K. (1966). A peg, pod, and root necrosis of peanuts caused by a species of Calonectria. Phytopathology, 56, 1361–1364.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, D. K., Locke, B. J., & Thompson, S. S. (1973). The status of Cylindrocladium black rot of peanut in Georgia since its discovery in 1965. Plant Disease Reporter, 57, 90–94.Google Scholar
  6. Brenneman, T. (2003). Use of fumigation and resistant cultivars to manage Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR). In: T. B. Brenneman, & C. L. Butts (Eds.), 2003 Georgia peanut research-extension report (pp. 76–82). Dawson: USDA. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2UserFiles/Place/66040000/ResearchandExtensionReports/2003GAReport.pdf.
  7. Crous, P. W., Wingfield, M. J., & Alfenas, A. C. (1993). Cylindrocladium parasiticum sp. nov., a new name for C. crotalariae. Mycological Research, 97, 889–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Glenn, D. L., Phipps, P. M., & Stipes, R. J. (2003). Incidence and survival of Cylindrocladium parasiticum in peanut seed. Plant Disease, 87, 867–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hood, G. (2008). PopTools version 3.0.6. Retrieved February, 2009, from PopTools, CSIRO Australia Web site: http://www.cse.csiro.au/poptools/download.htm.
  10. Krigsvold, D. T., Garren, K. H., & Griffin, G. J. (1977). Importance of peanut field cultivation and soybean cropping in the spread of Cylindrocladium crotalariae within and among peanut fields. Plant Disease Reporter, 61, 495–499.Google Scholar
  11. McDonald, B. A., & Linde, C. (2002). Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40, 349–379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Milgroom, M. G. (1996). Recombination and the multilocus structure of fungal populations. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 34, 457–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Milgroom, M. G., & Peever, T. L. (2003). Population biology of plant pathogens: the synthesis of plant disease epidemiology and population genetics. Plant Disease, 87, 608–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Milgroom, M. G., Sotirovski, K., Spica, D., Davis, J. E., Brewer, M. T., Milev, M., et al. (2008). Clonal population structure of the chestnut blight fungus in expanding ranges in southeastern Europe. Molecular Ecology, 17, 4446–4458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Möller, E. M., Bahnweg, G., & Geiger, H. H. (1992). A simple and efficient protocol for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from filamentous fungi, fruit bodies, and infected plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Research, 20, 6115–6116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Nei, M. (1973). Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 70, 3321–3323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Posada, D., & Crandall, K. A. (2001). Intraspecific gene genealogies: trees grafting into networks. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Randall-Schadel, B. L., Bailey, J. E., & Beute, M. K. (2001). Seed transmission of Cylindrocladium parasiticum in peanut. Plant Disease, 85, 362–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rowe, R. C., & Beute, M. K. (1975). Ascospore formation and discharge by Calonectria crotalariae. Phytopathology, 65, 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rowe, R. C., Johnston, S. A., & Beute, M. K. (1974). Formation and dispersal of Cylindrocladium crotalariae microsclerotia in infected peanut roots. Phytopathology, 64, 1294–1297.Google Scholar
  21. Stoddart, J. A., & Taylor, J. F. (1988). Genotypic diversity: estimation and prediction in samples. Genetics, 118, 705–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., & van der Lee, T. (1995). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research, 23, 4407–4417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Weir, B. S., & Cockerham, C. C. (1984). Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution, 38, 1358–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wright, L. P., Wingfield, B. D., Crous, P. W., Brenneman, T., & Wingfield, M. J. (2006). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, 110–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yeh, F. C., Yang, R., & Boyle, T. (1999). POPGENE Version 1.31: Microsoft window-based freeware for population genetic analysis. University of Alberta and Centre for International Forestry Research.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louwrance P. Wright
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew J. Davis
    • 1
  • Brenda D. Wingfield
    • 2
  • Pedro W. Crous
    • 3
  • Tim Brenneman
    • 4
  • Michael J. Wingfield
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMax Planck Institute for Chemical EcologyJenaGermany
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Tree Protection Co-operative Programme, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS)Ad UtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Plant Pathology, CPESUniversity of GeorgiaTiftonUSA

Personalised recommendations