European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 127, Issue 1, pp 137–148 | Cite as

The effect of different carbon sources on phenotypic expression by Fusarium graminearum strains

Original Research

Abstract

Two Fusarium graminearum strains were cultured in glucose yeast extract peptone broth or minimal medium broth to measure the production of mycelial biomass, pH, mycotoxins, and aurofusarin pigment, when limited to single carbon sources (at 1%), including xylan, cellulose, starch, or glucose. A random complete block design with factorial arrangement and analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.01 were employed to test for treatment differences. Overall, the F. graminearum strains produced significantly more biomass, deoxynivalenol, and aurofusarin with xylan than with cellulose. No significant differences were found in terms of 15–acetyldeoxynivalenol production from the four carbon sources. The presence of significant interactions between the strains, carbon sources, and media led to the following specific differences. In yeast extract peptone broth, R-9828 strain yielded significantly more deoxynivalenol production with xylan than cellulose and R-9832 produced significantly more mycelium (biomass) with xylan than cellulose. R-9828 strain yielded significantly more deoxynivalenol production than the R-9832 strain. Also in yeast extract peptone broth, cellulose led to significantly higher pH values than other carbons, which might be due to the limited ability of the Fusarium strains to utilize cellulose as an energy source. Aurofusarin was the only expressed analyte to show a significant difference in minimal medium broth, and R-9832 produced significantly more aurofusarin with xylan than with cellulose in the broth. These results suggest that xylan may induce Fusarium growth and deoxynivalenol production to assist the infection process and may support the theory that F. graminearum invades through xylan in the cell walls of cereals.

Keywords

Trichothecene Aurofusarin Xylan Cellulose pH Biomass 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of Variance

AU

Absorbance Unit

3-ADON

3-acetyldexynivalenol

15-ADON

5-acetyldeoxynivalenol

CMC

carboxymethycellulose

CLA

carnation leaf agar

DON

deoxynivalenol

FHB

Fusarium head blight

GYEP

glucose yeast extract peptone broth

HPLC

high performance liquid chromatography

MM

Minimal medium broth

NIV

nivalenol

PDA

photodiode array detector

RCBD

random complete block design

ZEN

zeralenone

References

  1. Bell, A. A., Wheeler, M. H., Liu, J. G., & Stipanovic, R. D. (2003). United States Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service studies on polyketide toxins of Fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control. Pest Management Science, 59, 736–747.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bily, A. C., Reid, L. M., Savard, M. E., Reddy, R., & Blackwell, B. A. (2004). Analysis of Fusarium graminearum mycotoxins in different biological matrices by LC/MS. Mycopathologia, 157, 117–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth, C. (1971). The genus Fusarium. Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Buchenauer, H., & Kang, Z. (2004). Ultrastructural studies on infection process of Fusarium Head Blight in resistant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight Incorporating the 8th European Fusarium Seminar, Orlando, Florida, December.Google Scholar
  5. Burkhead, K. D. (1990). Production, characterization, and biogenesis of aurofusarin from a new strain of Fusarium graminearum. Dissertation, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  6. Bushnell, W. R., Hazen, B. E., & Pritsch, C. (2003). Histology and physiology of Fusarium head blight. In K. J. Leonard & W. R. Bushnell (Eds.), Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley (pp. 44–83). Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  7. Carpita, N. C., Defernez, M., Findlay, K., Wells, B., Shoue, D. A., Catchpole, G., et al. (2001). Cell wall architecture of the elongating maize coleoptile. Plant Physiology, 127, 551–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gardiner, D. M., Kazan, K., & Manners, J. M. (2009). Nutrient profiling reveals potent inducers of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 46, 604–613.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Giesbrecht, F. G., & Gumpertz, M. L. (2004). Planning, construction, and statistical analysis of comparative experiments. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goswami, R. S., & Kistler, H. C. (2004). Heading for disaster: Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops. Molecular Plant Pathology, 5, 515–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grabber, J. H., Ralph, J., Lapierre, C., & Barriere, Y. (2004). Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell-wall degradability. I. Lignin-cell wall matrix interactions. Plant Biology and Pathology, 327, 455–465.Google Scholar
  12. Hellweg, M. (2003). Molecular, biological and biochemical studies of proteolytic enzymes of the cereal pathogen F. graminearum, Inaugural Dissertation, Retrieved September 21, 2006, from www.deposit.ddb.de.
  13. Hinkelmann, K. (2004). Evaluation and interpreting interactions. Technical Report number 04–5. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Statistics Web site: www.stat.org.vt.edu/dept/web-e/tech_reports/TechReport04-6.pdf.
  14. Izydorczyk, M. S., & Biliaderis, C. G. (1995). Cereal arabinoxulans: advances in structure and physicochemical properties. Carbohydrate Polymers, 28, 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Izydorczyk, M. S., & MacGregor, A. W. (2000). Evidence of intermolecular interactions of β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Carbohydrate Polymers, 41, 417–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jansen, C., von Wettstein, D., Schafer, W., Kogel, K. H., Felk, A., & Maier, F. J. (2005). Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 102,16892–16897.Google Scholar
  17. Jiao, F., Kawakami, A., & Nakajima, T. (2008). Effects of different carbon sources on trichothecene production and Tri gene expression by Fusarium graminearum in liquid culture. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 285, 212–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kang, Z., & Buchenauer, H. (1999). Immunocytochemical localization of fusarium toxins in infected wheat spikes by Fusarium culmorum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 55, 275–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kang, Z., & Buchenauer, H. (2000). Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies on cellulose, xylan and pectin degradation in wheat spikes infected by Fusarium culmorum. Journal of Phytopathology, 148, 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kang, Z., Zingen-Sell, I., & Buchenauer, H. (2005). Infection of wheat spikes by Fusarium avenaceum and alterations of cell wall components in the infected tissue. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 111, 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leschine, S. B. (1995). Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments. Annual Reviews of Microbiology, 49, 399–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lysoe, E., Klemsdal, S. S., Bone, K. R., Frandsen, R. J. N., Johansen, T., Thrane, U., et al. (2006). The PKS4 gene of Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 3924–3932.Google Scholar
  23. McCormick, S. (2003). The role of DON in pathogenicity. In K. J. Leonard & W. R. Bushnell (Eds.), Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley (pp. 165–184). St. Paul, Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  24. Medentsev, A. G., Kotik, A. N., Trufanova, V. A., & Akimenko, V. K. (1993). Identification of an aurofusarin from Fusarium graminearum that causes egg quality deterioration in hens. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 29, 406–409.Google Scholar
  25. Miller, J. D., & Greenhalgh, R. (1985). Nutrient effects on the biosynthesis of trichothecenes and other metabolites by Fusarium graminearum. Mycologia, 77, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Donnell, K., Kistler, H. C., Tacke, B. K., & Casper, H. H. (2000). Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeographic structure and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum, the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 7905–7910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Oshima,T. C., & McCarty, F. (2006). Factorial Analysis of Variance Statistically significant interactions: what’s the next step? Retrieved September 2006 1 from Georgia State University web site: www.gsu.edu/∼epstco/aeraStudent.pdf.
  28. Pestka, J. J., Bahrawy, A., & Hart, L. P. (1985). Deoxynivalenol and 15-monoacetyl deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum R6576 in liquid media. Mycopathologia, 91, 23–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Proctor, R. H., Desjardins, A. E., McCormick, S. P., Plattner, R. D., Alexander, N. J., & Brown, D. W. (2002). Genetic analysis of the role of trichothecene and fumonisin mycotoxins in the virulence of Fsarium. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108, 691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schwarz, P. B., Schwarz, J. G., Zhou, A., Prom, L. K., & Steffenson, B. J. (2001). Effect of Fusarium graminearum and F. poae infection on barley and malt quality. Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft, 54, 55–63.Google Scholar
  31. Schwarz, P. B., Jones, B. L., & Steffenson, B. J. (2002). Enzymes associated with Fusarium infection of barley. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 60, 130–134.Google Scholar
  32. Shibata, S., Morishita, E., Takeda, T., & Sakata, K. (1968). Metabolic products of fungi. XXVIII. The structure of anrofusarin. Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 16, 405–410.Google Scholar
  33. Siranidou, E., Kang, Z., & Buchenauer, H. (2002). Studies on symptom development, phenolic compounds and morphological defense responses in wheat cultivars differing in resistance to Fusarium head blight. Journal of Phytopathology, 150, 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stergiopoulos, L., Zwiers, L., & Maarten, A. (2002). Secretion of natural and synthetic toxic compounds from filamentous fungi by membrane transporters of the ATP-binding casete and major facilitator superfamily. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 108, 719–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Voigt, C. A., Scheidt, B. V., Gacser, A., Kassner, H., Lieberei, R., Schafer, W., et al. (2007). Enhanced mycotoxin production of a lipase-deficient Fusarium graminearum mutant correlates to toxin-related gene expression. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 117, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wolf-Hall, C. E., & Bullerman, L. B. (1998). Characterization of Fusarium graminearum strains from corn and wheat by deoxynivalenol production and RAPD. Journal of Food Mycology, 1, 171–180.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© KNPV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dairy SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary and Microbiological SciencesNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations