The effect of different carbon sources on phenotypic expression by Fusarium graminearum strains
Two Fusarium graminearum strains were cultured in glucose yeast extract peptone broth or minimal medium broth to measure the production of mycelial biomass, pH, mycotoxins, and aurofusarin pigment, when limited to single carbon sources (at 1%), including xylan, cellulose, starch, or glucose. A random complete block design with factorial arrangement and analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.01 were employed to test for treatment differences. Overall, the F. graminearum strains produced significantly more biomass, deoxynivalenol, and aurofusarin with xylan than with cellulose. No significant differences were found in terms of 15–acetyldeoxynivalenol production from the four carbon sources. The presence of significant interactions between the strains, carbon sources, and media led to the following specific differences. In yeast extract peptone broth, R-9828 strain yielded significantly more deoxynivalenol production with xylan than cellulose and R-9832 produced significantly more mycelium (biomass) with xylan than cellulose. R-9828 strain yielded significantly more deoxynivalenol production than the R-9832 strain. Also in yeast extract peptone broth, cellulose led to significantly higher pH values than other carbons, which might be due to the limited ability of the Fusarium strains to utilize cellulose as an energy source. Aurofusarin was the only expressed analyte to show a significant difference in minimal medium broth, and R-9832 produced significantly more aurofusarin with xylan than with cellulose in the broth. These results suggest that xylan may induce Fusarium growth and deoxynivalenol production to assist the infection process and may support the theory that F. graminearum invades through xylan in the cell walls of cereals.
KeywordsTrichothecene Aurofusarin Xylan Cellulose pH Biomass
Analysis of Variance
carnation leaf agar
Fusarium head blight
glucose yeast extract peptone broth
high performance liquid chromatography
Minimal medium broth
photodiode array detector
random complete block design
- Bell, A. A., Wheeler, M. H., Liu, J. G., & Stipanovic, R. D. (2003). United States Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service studies on polyketide toxins of Fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control. Pest Management Science, 59, 736–747.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Booth, C. (1971). The genus Fusarium. Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
- Buchenauer, H., & Kang, Z. (2004). Ultrastructural studies on infection process of Fusarium Head Blight in resistant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight Incorporating the 8th European Fusarium Seminar, Orlando, Florida, December.Google Scholar
- Burkhead, K. D. (1990). Production, characterization, and biogenesis of aurofusarin from a new strain of Fusarium graminearum. Dissertation, University of Iowa.Google Scholar
- Bushnell, W. R., Hazen, B. E., & Pritsch, C. (2003). Histology and physiology of Fusarium head blight. In K. J. Leonard & W. R. Bushnell (Eds.), Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley (pp. 44–83). Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
- Grabber, J. H., Ralph, J., Lapierre, C., & Barriere, Y. (2004). Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell-wall degradability. I. Lignin-cell wall matrix interactions. Plant Biology and Pathology, 327, 455–465.Google Scholar
- Hellweg, M. (2003). Molecular, biological and biochemical studies of proteolytic enzymes of the cereal pathogen F. graminearum, Inaugural Dissertation, Retrieved September 21, 2006, from www.deposit.ddb.de.
- Hinkelmann, K. (2004). Evaluation and interpreting interactions. Technical Report number 04–5. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Statistics Web site: www.stat.org.vt.edu/dept/web-e/tech_reports/TechReport04-6.pdf.
- Jansen, C., von Wettstein, D., Schafer, W., Kogel, K. H., Felk, A., & Maier, F. J. (2005). Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 102,16892–16897.Google Scholar
- Lysoe, E., Klemsdal, S. S., Bone, K. R., Frandsen, R. J. N., Johansen, T., Thrane, U., et al. (2006). The PKS4 gene of Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 3924–3932.Google Scholar
- McCormick, S. (2003). The role of DON in pathogenicity. In K. J. Leonard & W. R. Bushnell (Eds.), Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley (pp. 165–184). St. Paul, Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
- Medentsev, A. G., Kotik, A. N., Trufanova, V. A., & Akimenko, V. K. (1993). Identification of an aurofusarin from Fusarium graminearum that causes egg quality deterioration in hens. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 29, 406–409.Google Scholar
- O’Donnell, K., Kistler, H. C., Tacke, B. K., & Casper, H. H. (2000). Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeographic structure and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum, the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 7905–7910.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oshima,T. C., & McCarty, F. (2006). Factorial Analysis of Variance Statistically significant interactions: what’s the next step? Retrieved September 2006 1 from Georgia State University web site: www.gsu.edu/∼epstco/aeraStudent.pdf.
- Schwarz, P. B., Schwarz, J. G., Zhou, A., Prom, L. K., & Steffenson, B. J. (2001). Effect of Fusarium graminearum and F. poae infection on barley and malt quality. Monatsschrift für Brauwissenschaft, 54, 55–63.Google Scholar
- Schwarz, P. B., Jones, B. L., & Steffenson, B. J. (2002). Enzymes associated with Fusarium infection of barley. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 60, 130–134.Google Scholar
- Shibata, S., Morishita, E., Takeda, T., & Sakata, K. (1968). Metabolic products of fungi. XXVIII. The structure of anrofusarin. Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 16, 405–410.Google Scholar
- Wolf-Hall, C. E., & Bullerman, L. B. (1998). Characterization of Fusarium graminearum strains from corn and wheat by deoxynivalenol production and RAPD. Journal of Food Mycology, 1, 171–180.Google Scholar