Aetiology and causal agents of mango sudden decline disease in the Sultanate of Oman
- 273 Downloads
Mango sudden decline is a recently introduced, economically serious disease in Oman. Affected mango trees have wilting symptoms that usually begin on one side and later spread to involve the entire tree. Trees exude amber-coloured gum from the bark of their trunks or branches and vascular tissues are discoloured. Having entered Oman in the recent past, survey data is presented that shows the disease to have spread throughout the northern part of the country. Evidence is presented that the vascular wilt pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata causes mango sudden decline disease in Oman, possibly in concert with Lasiodiplodia theobromae and the recently described Ceratocystis omanensis. Isolates of these fungi from affected trees, cause infection and can be recovered from inoculated seedlings. Bark beetles (Hypocryphalus mangiferae) are shown to carry C. fimbriata and L. theobromae and are presumably responsible for transmitting both pathogens to healthy mango trees. Acting as a wounding agent and vector, the bark beetle is likely to have assisted the rapid spread of the disease across Oman.
KeywordsCeratocystis fimbriata Ceratocystis omanensis Hypocryphalus mangiferae Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This research was funded in part by Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman. We thank Engineer Amer Al Shibli, Director, Ghadafan Agriculture Research Station, for providing mango seedlings for inoculation trials and Professor Randy Ploetz for valuable advice.
- Al Adawi AO (2002) The biology of Diplodia theobromae associated with Mango Sudden Decline Disease in Oman. MSc Thesis, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, 168 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hansen HP (1993) Volatile metabolites produced by species of Ophiostoma and Ceratocystis. In: Wingfield MJ, KA Seifert, Webber JF (eds) Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathogenicity. APS Press, St Paul, USA, pp 117–126Google Scholar
- Johnson GI (1992) Biology and control of stem end rot pathogens of mango. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland, Australia, 265 ppGoogle Scholar
- Johnson GI (1994) Stem-end rots. In: Ploetz RC, Zentmeyer GA, Nishijima WT, Rohrbach KG, Ohr HD (eds) Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. APS Press, St Paul, USA, pp 39–41Google Scholar
- Kile GA (1993) Plant diseases caused by species of Ceratocystis sensu stricto and Chalara. In: Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber JF (eds) Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathogenicity. APS Press, St Paul, USA, pp 173–183Google Scholar
- MAF (2002) Eradication Program Report for Mango Decline Disease in Al Batinah Region during 2001. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman. 7 pp. (In Arabic)Google Scholar
- Moghal SM, Shivanathan P, Mani A, Al Zidgali AD, Al Zidgali TS, Al Raeesy and YM (1993) Status of Pests and Diseases in Oman. Series 1. Plant Diseases in the Batinah. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Sultanate of Oman, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
- Moller WJ, DeVay JE (1968) Carrot as a species-selective isolation medium for Ceratocystis fimbriata. Phytopathology 58:123–124Google Scholar
- Ploetz RC (2003) Diseases of mango. In: Ploetz RC (ed.) Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 327–363Google Scholar
- Ploetz RC, Prakash O (1997) Foliar, floral and soil-borne diseases. In: Litz RE (ed) The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 281–325Google Scholar
- Punithalingam E (1980) Plant Diseases Attributed to Botrydiplodia theobromae. Cramer, Vaduz, Lichtenstein, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
- Ribiero IJA (1980) Seca de manguera. Agentes causais e studio da molesta. In: Anais do I Simposio Brasiliero Sobre a Cultura de Mangeura. Sociedad Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jacoticobal, November 24–28, 1980, pp. 123–130Google Scholar
- Sutton BC (1980) The Coelomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, UK, 696 ppGoogle Scholar
- Upadhyay HP (1981) A Monograph of Ceratocystis and Ceratocystiopsis. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia, USA, 176 ppGoogle Scholar
- van Wyk M, Al Adawi AO, Wingfield BD, Al Subhi Am, Deadman ML and Wingfield MJ (2005) DNA based characterization of Ceratocystis fimbriata isolates associated with mango decline in Oman. Australasian Plant Pathology 34: 587–590Google Scholar