European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 145–153 | Cite as

Susceptibility of German spring barley cultivars to loose smut populations from different European origins

  • Karl-Josef Mueller


Forty-two registered spring barley cultivars from the German official list were tested under natural infection conditions for susceptibility to loose smut (Ustilago tritici f.sp. hordei) during two test cycles at two locations. Only cv. Steffi was found to be resistant to the local loose smut population. Cultivar Sigrid showed lowest susceptibility because of flowering inside the leaf sheath. Less than 1% infection at all sites showed up in cvs Auriga, Jacinta and Hendrix. Twenty-one cultivars had an infection rate of less than 2%. Cultivar Danuta displayed the highest susceptibility with an average of 12.6%. Another 23 spring barley accessions with expected loose smut resistance were inoculated artificially with loose smut populations obtained from 11 locations in Germany and neighbouring countries. Only Jet with the resistance Un3/6, CDC Freedom with Un8, CIho9973 with quantitative resistance, as well as Lino and GangTuoQuingKeHao1 remained disease-free. In addition to these, another eight accessions in this test group are recommended to become part of a differential tester set to distinguish origins of loose smut. Statistical analysis showed that for scoring of cultivars more importance has to be given to the number of locations for infestation than to the number of test locations to determine the degree of attack. In view of the existing inspection limits for production of certified seed in European countries, the currently registered German barley cultivars put organic seed producers and breeders at high risk in respect to loose smut infection, if the number of generations for multiplication under organic farming increases.


Hordeum vulgare inspection limits Ustilago nuda virulence 







Czech Republic










Ustilago nuda


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The trials were supported by the German Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture under project number 01HS027. With the help of breeders and scientists from Germany and related countries it was possible to collect the loose smut populations from different locations. Hartmut Spiess was in charge of the second test location, Dottenfelderhof. Irina Terentieva from St.Petersburg, Helmut Knuepffer from Gatersleben, Harold Bockelman from Aberdeen/Idaho and Brian Rossnagel from Saskatoon made available the genetic resources, and participants of EU COST Action 860 (SUSVAR) collated data on seed inspection rejection levels from many European countries. I would like to thank them all for their assistance.


  1. Gabor BK and Thomas PL (1987) Un8 allele for loose smut resistance associated with necrosis in embryos of infected barley. Phytopathology 77:533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hewett PD (1979) Reaction of selected spring barley cultivars to inoculation with loose smut, Ustilago nuda. Plant Pathology 28:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kirdoglo EK (1990) Breeding barley for resistance to smut and leaf/stem diseases. Vestnik Sel’skochozjajstvennoj Nauki Moskva 10:98–104Google Scholar
  4. Luk’yanova MV, Tishkov NI (1985) Basic trends in barley breeding in the steppe zone of the southern Urals. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii 95:23–28Google Scholar
  5. Metcalfe DR (1969) Genetics of host resistance to loose smut of barley. Barley Genetics II. Proceedings of the 2nd International Barley Genetics Symposium Pullman. Washington 1971, 508–512Google Scholar
  6. Metcalfe DR, Johnston WH (1963) Inheritance of loose smut resistance. II Inheritance of resistance in three barley varieties to races 1,2 and 3 of Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 43:390–396Google Scholar
  7. Moseman JG and Metcalfe DR (1969) Identification of resistance genes in barley by reactions to Ustilago nuda. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 49:447–451Google Scholar
  8. Niemann E (1961) Flugbrandresistente Gerstensorten. Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenzuechtung 45:8–16Google Scholar
  9. Nover I, Lehmann CO, Seidenfaden A (1976) Resistenzeigenschaften im Gersten and Weizensortiment Gatersleben. 20. Pruefung des Verhaltens von Gersten gegen Flugbrand, Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr. Kulturpflanze 24:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Oertel C (1955) Untersuchungen zur Biologie des Gerstenflugbrandes (Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Sw.). Kuehn-Archiv 69:552–602Google Scholar
  11. Poehlman JM (1945) A simple method of inoculating barley with loose smut. Phytopathology 35:640–644Google Scholar
  12. Poehlman JM (1947) Sources of resistance to loose smut, Ustilago nuda, in winter barleys. Journal of American Society of Agronomy 39:430–437Google Scholar
  13. Terentieva I, Khohlova A and Kovaleva O (2000) Australian Spring Barley in North-West Russia:Sources of Earliness, Resistance to Loose Smut, Drought Tolerance. In: Logue S (ed) Barley Genetics VIII, Proceedings of the 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium, 22–27 October 2000, Adelaide, 3: 295–296 [ISBN 0086396-680-3]Google Scholar
  14. Therrien MC (1999) The possibility of quantitative inheritance of loose smut in barley. Barley Genetic Newsletter 29:30Google Scholar
  15. Thomas PL and Menzies JG (1997) Cereal smuts in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 1989–95. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 19(2):161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Thomas PL, Metcalfe DR (1984) Loose smut resistance in two introductions of barley from Ethiopia. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 64:255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Utz HF (2001) PLABSTAT, ein Computerprogramm zur statistischen Analyse pflanzenzuechterischer Experimente. Universitaet HohenheimGoogle Scholar
  18. Wicke H (1986) Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Resistenz von Sommergerstensorten gegen den Flugbranderreger Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr. Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, BonnGoogle Scholar
  19. Zeidan MI (1955) The inheritance of resistance to Ustilago nuda (JENS.) K. and W., race 1, in barley. Dissertation Abstracts 15:326Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cereal Breeding Research DarzauNeu DarchauGermany

Personalised recommendations