European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 185–197

An Aqueous Extract of the Dry Mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum Induces Resistance in Several Crops under Controlled and Field Conditions

  • Barbara Thuerig
  • Andres Binder
  • Thomas Boller
  • Urs Guyer
  • Sonia Jiménez
  • Christina Rentsch
  • Lucius Tamm
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10658-005-4512-6

Cite this article as:
Thuerig, B., Binder, A., Boller, T. et al. Eur J Plant Pathol (2006) 114: 185. doi:10.1007/s10658-005-4512-6

Abstract

We have examined the effect of Pen, an aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum, on plant–pathogen interactions. Pen controlled a broad range of pathogens on several crop plants under greenhouse and field conditions. Pen protected grapevine from downy and powdery mildew (caused by Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), tomato from early blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans), onion from downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and apple trees from apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) to a similar extent as fungicides such as copper and sulphur or well-known inducers such as benzothiadiazole or β-aminobutyric acid. Pen had no major direct fungicidal effect and is thus supposed to protect plants by activating their defense mechanisms. The raw material for extraction of Pen was available in constant quality, a prerequisite for commercial application. Under certain conditions, Pen caused phytotoxic side effects. The symptoms mostly consisted of small necrotic spots or, more rarely, of larger necrotic areas. The development of the symptoms was dependent on several parameters, including concentration of Pen, the number of applications, the persistence on the plant tissue, the plant species and variety and environmental conditions. In grapevine, a partially purified fraction of Pen was much less toxic than the crude Pen extract, but protected the plants to a similar extent against P. viticola. Our data show that Pen has interesting and unique properties as a plant protection agent, but more research is needed to further reduce its phytotoxic side effects.

Keywords

apple tree grapevine induced resistance Phytophthora infestans Plasmopara viticola tomato 

Abbreviations

Pen

an aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum

Pen2000

a size fraction of Pen (>2000 Da) gained by dialysis

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Thuerig
    • 1
  • Andres Binder
    • 2
  • Thomas Boller
    • 3
  • Urs Guyer
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sonia Jiménez
    • 1
  • Christina Rentsch
    • 1
  • Lucius Tamm
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Organic AgricultureFrickSwitzerland
  2. 2.Botanical InstituteUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Botanical InstituteUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  4. 4.Institute of Plant ScienceETH centreZurichSwitzerland

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