Hydrogen peroxide localization and antioxidant status in the recovery of apricot plants from European Stone Fruit Yellows
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Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) localization and roles of peroxidases, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were compared in leaves of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) plants asymptomatic, European Stone Fruits Yellows (ESFY)-symptomatic and recovered. Nested PCR analysis revealed that ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, is present in asymptomatic, symptomatic and recovered apricot trees, confirming previous observations on this species, in which recovery does not seem to be related to the disappearance of phytoplasma from the plant.
H2O2was detected cytochemically by its reaction with cerium chloride, which produces electron-dense deposits of cerium perhydroxides. H2O2was present in the plasmalemma of the phloem cells of recovered apricot plant leaves, but not in the asymptomatic or symptomatic material. Furthermore, by labelling apricot leaf tissues with diaminobenzidine DAB, no differences were found in the localization of peroxidases.
Protein content in asymptomatic, symptomatic and recovered leaves was not significantly different from one another. In contrast, guaiacol peroxidase activity had the following trend: symptomatic > recovered > asymptomatic, whereas reduced glutathione content followed the opposite trend: asymptomatic > recovered > symptomatic. Moreover, no differences were observed in malondialdehyde concentrations between asymptomatic, symptomatic and recovered leaves. The overall results suggest that H2O2 and related metabolites and enzymes appear to be involved in lessening both pathogen virulence and disease symptom expression in ESFY-infected apricot plants.
Keywordsglutathione malondialdehyde peroxidases phytoplasma transmission electron microscopy
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