Nuclear reactors in Japan: Who asks for them, what do they do?

Article

Abstract

Japanese communities with nuclear reactors have them because they applied for them, and they applied for them for the money. Among Japanese municipalities, they were some of the most dysfunctional before the reactors had even arrived. These were the villages that had long fought for targeted subsidies, but ignored infrastructural investments. Subsidies operate as a regressive tax on out-migration, of course, and the lack of private-sector infrastructure reduces the returns to high-value human capital. As a result, these were the villages from which the most talented young people had probably begun to disappear—even before the reactors arrived. After the communities built the reactors, talented young people continued to leave. Unemployment rose. Divorce rates climbed. And in time, the communities had little other than reactor-revenue on which to rely.

Keywords

Nuclear power Social capital Migration 

JEL Classification

H84 I38 J12 K32 L32 L94 

References

  1. Aldrich, D. P. (2008). Site fights: Divisive facilities and civil society in Japan and the West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ando, M. (2015). Dreams of urbanization: Quantitative case studies on the local impacts of nuclear power facilities using the synthetic control method. Journal of Urban Economics, 85, 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, G. (1981). Treatise on the family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Fukushima yori, Kawauchi, Ikata ga “cho” kiken na riyu [Why Kawauchi and Ikata are far more dangerous than Fukushima], Diamond On-Line, 2016. http://diamond.jp/articles/-/82951?page=2.
  5. Gensuikin. (1997). Nihon no genshiryoku hatsudensho ichiran [Survey of Japanese nuclear reactors] (effective July 1997). http://www.gensuikin.org/data/genpatuichiran.html.
  6. Goo. (2016). Real estate industry website about Kashiwazaki. http://house.goo.ne.jp/chiiki/kurashi/niigata/15205.html, searched 11/29/2016.
  7. Habara, S. (2012). Tanaka Kakuei “giwaku” no zansho [Tanaka Kakuei: The remaining doubts], Oruta [Alter], March 20, 2012. http://www.alter-magazine.jp/index.php?
  8. Ike, B. (1980). The Japanese textile industry: Structural adjustment and government policy. Asian Survey, 20, 532–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Imamura, A. (1934). Past tsunamis of the Sanriku Coast. Japanese Journal of Astronomy & Geophysics, 11, 79.Google Scholar
  10. Ishii, H. (2003). Book review: Iwaki shi shi [History of Iwaki City], 6 Chiiki kenkyu. http://www.jyoban-coalfield.com/public/pu_sepa/iwakisisi_sepa/shohyouishii.html.
  11. Itami, H. (2001). Nihon no sen’i sangyo: Naze korehodo yowaku natte shimatte no ka? [The Japanese textile industry: Why has it become so weak?]. Tokyo: NTT shuppan.Google Scholar
  12. Ito, H. (2011). Genpatsu no arumachi [Towns with nuclear power], Nogyo kyodo kumiai shimbun, August 1, 2011. http://www.jacom.or.jp/archive03/tokusyu/2011/tokusyu110801-14409.html.
  13. Ikeda, C. (No date). Genshiryoku hatsudensho ga Kashiwazaki shi zaise ni ataeta eikyo [The effect of nuclear power stations on Kashiwazaki City Finance]. Niigata ken honbu, Jiji ro Kashiwazaki shi shokuin rodo kumiai.Google Scholar
  14. Jishin chosa kenkyu suishin honbu. (2012). Todofuken goto no jishin katsudo [Earthquake activity by prefecture] (effective 2012). http://www.jishin.go.jp/regional_seismicity/.
  15. Johnson, Chalmers. (1986). Tanaka Kakuei, structural corruption, and the advent of machine politics in Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies, 12, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kainuma, H. (2011). “Fukushima” ron [“Fukushima” theory]. Tokyo: Seido sha.Google Scholar
  17. Kasako, T. (2012). Genpatsu yuchi de zaisei kiki ni ochiitta Kashiwazaki shi [Kashiwazaki solicited nuclear reactors and fell into fiscal crisis], Kasakoblog, October 9, 2012. http://kasakoblog.exblog.jp/19004306/.
  18. Kashiwazaki Kariwa genshi ryoku hatsudensho 6 go ki no hoshaseibutsu shitsu no roei ni tsuite [Regarding the Radioactive Leak from Reactor 6 at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant], July 16, 2007. http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/07071604-j.html (Tepco press release).
  19. Kato, T., Takahara, S., Nishikawa, M., & Homma, T. (2013). A case study of economic incentives and local citizens’ attitudes toward hosting a nuclear power plant in Japan: Impacts of the Fukushima accident. Energy Policy, 59, 808–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keisansho. (2011). Dengen ricchi seido no gaiyo [An Outline of Policies Relating to Electricity Producing Regions]. Tokyo: Keisansho.Google Scholar
  21. Keizai Sango sho sheen enerugii cho. (2011). Dengen richi seido no gaiyo [A summary of the electrical generating region system]. Tokyo: Keisansho.Google Scholar
  22. Kansoku kyoka chiiki, tokutei kansoku chiiki no keii [4 Strengthened Monitoring Areas, Special Monitoring Areas.] (no date given). http://cais.gsi.go.jp/YOCHIREN/history/1-2-4_strong-sp.pdf.
  23. Keizai sangyo sho. (2009). Waga kuni sekitan seisaku no rekishi to genjo [The history and circumstances of the coal industry in our country]. http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/resources_and_fuel/coal/japan/pdf/23.pdf.
  24. Kiyomiya, I. (1955). Joban tanden shi [History of the Joban coal fields]. Taira shi: Amago kai.Google Scholar
  25. Lewis, O. (1963). The culture of poverty, The New Yorker, at 17.Google Scholar
  26. Miyoshi, Y. (2009). Genshiryoku hatsudensho to jijitai zaisei [Nuclear power plants and local public finance]. Ritsumeikan keizai gaku, 58, 43. http://r-cube.ritsumei.ac.jp/bitstream/10367/1083/1/30015872_584_miyoshi.pdf.
  27. Miyoshi, Y. (2012). Genshiryoku hatsudensho to Fukui ken Mihama cho zaisei [Nuclear power plants and the public finance of the Town of Mihama, Fukui Prefecture]. ci.nii.ac.jp/lognavi?name = nels&lang = en&type = pdf&id = ART0010105503.Google Scholar
  28. Moynihan, D. P. (1965). The Moynihan Report: An Annotated Edition, The Atlantic (2015; original published in 1965).Google Scholar
  29. Moynihan, D. P. (1968). The professors and the poor. In D. P. Moynihan (Ed.), On understanding poverty (pp. 3–35). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, C. (1993). Welfare and the family: The U.S. experience. Journal of Labor Economics, 11, S224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nagai, M. et al. (2015). Oi genshiryoku hatsudensho ha koshite dekita [This is how the Oi nuclear reactor came to be]. Tokyo: Koninsha.Google Scholar
  32. Namie cho no rekishi to higashi Nihon daishinsai [The History of Namie Town and the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake]. http://www.f-smeca.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/2011cyousakenkyuu03.pdf.
  33. Nihon chiiki banzuke [Regional Rankings in Japan]. (2016). http://area-info.jpn.org/index.html.
  34. No author given. (1972). Nenryo kogyo no suii to shorai no tembo [A History of the Fuel Industry and the Outlook for the Future], 51 Nenryo kyokai shi 763 (1972). https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jie1922/51/10/51_10_763/_pdf.
  35. Nosei, T. et al. (2013). Hokuriku shuyo sangyo no genjo to kadai [The circumstances and issues involving major industries in the Hokuriku Region], at 31. http://www.ide.go.jp/Japanese/Publish/Download/Report/2013/pdf/B406_ch2.pdf.
  36. Ohara shakai mondai kenkyu jo (Ed.). (1956). Shitsugyosha no sonzai keitai [The place of unemployed workers]. Tokyo: Toyo keizai shimpo sha.Google Scholar
  37. Ramseyer, J. M. (1989). Water law in imperial Japan: Public goods, private claims, and legal convergence. The Journal of Legal Studies, 18, 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramseyer, J. M. (2012). Why power companies build nuclear reactors on fault lines: The case of Japan. Theoretical Inquiries L., 13, 457.Google Scholar
  39. Ramseyer, J. M., & Rosenbluth, F. M. (1993). Japan’s political marketplace. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Sai kado shita ikata genpatsu ha Nihon de ichiban kiken na genpatsu da [The Restarted Ikata Reactor Is the Most Dangerous in Japan], August, 12, 2016. http://lite-ra.com/2016/08/post-2491.html.
  41. Saikado shita ikata genpatsu… [The Restarted Ikata Reactor…]. 2016. http://lite-ra.com/2016/08/post-2491.html.
  42. Samuels, R. J. (1987). The business of the Japanese state: Energy markets in comparative and historical perspective. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sandee Mainichi. 2004. Tokai jishin saiko ken’i: moto jishin yochiren kaicho ga ikari no kokuhatsu [Highest Authority on Tokai Earthquake: Former Chair of Earthquake Prediction Federation Issues Angry Announcement], Sandee Mainichi, February 29, 2004. http://www.stop-hamaoka.com/news/sunday.html.
  44. Seidensticker, E. G. (1956). “Introduction,” to Yasunari Kawabata, Snow country. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  45. Shirato, S. (2009–2010). Sen’i sangyo kozo kaizen seisaku to orimono sanchi ni okeru kozo kaizen jigyo no rekishiteki kensho [Historical Research into the Structural Improvement Policy]. Meiji daigaku shakai kagaku kenkyujo kiyo, 51-2, 1. https://m-repo.lib.meiji.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10291/16537/1/shakaikagakukiyo_51_2_1.pdf.
  46. Shirundo. (2017). Nankai torafu daijishin, Tokai jishin 2017nen ka itsu [Will the Nankai Trough Earthquake, the Tokai Earthquake Hit in 2017? When?]. http://sirundous.com/nratzen/tokaitorafu/.
  47. Staffblog. (2014). Naniga nandemo Hamaoka genpatsu dake ha ugokashiteha naranai to iu riyu [The reason to avoid running the Hamaoka reactor at all costs], February 14, 2014. http://www.thinktheearth.net/jp/staffBlog/2004/02/post-334.html.
  48. Tomizawa, S. (2005). Fukui sen’i sanchi no kozo chosei shi [The history of structural adjustment in the textile region of Fukui]. Keiei kenkyu, 56, 17. http://dlisv03.media.osaka-cu.ac.jp/infolib/user_contents/kiyo/DB00011775.pdf.
  49. Tullock, G. (1975). The transitional gains trap. The Bell Journal of Economics, 6, 671–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Usami, T. (2003). Nihon higai jishin soran, [416]-2001 [Materials for Comprehensive List of Destructive Earthquakes in Japan, [416]-2001].Google Scholar
  51. Usami, N. (2014). Genpatsu ga tomatta genpatsu no machi “Kashiwazaki” no genjo [The present circumstances of the Nuclear City Kashiwazaki without a operating nuclear reactor]. Blogos, August 27, 2014. http://blogos.com/article/93288/.
  52. Utsu. (1982). Nihon fukin no M6.0 ijo no jishin oyobi higai jishin no hyo: 1885 nen—1980 nen [Table of magnitude 6.0 or higher earthquakes near Japan and of earthquakes causing damage], Jishin kenkyujo iho, 57, 401.Google Scholar
  53. Utsu, T., et al., eds. (2010). Jishin no jiten [Encyclopedia of earthquakes] App. II (2nd ed.).Google Scholar
  54. Somusho, ed. (No date). Chiho zaisei no bunseki [An analysis of local public finance]. http://soomu.go.jp.
  55. Waseda daigaku. (2009). Tanko rodosha no heizan rishoku to kyaria no saideisei [The discharge of coal miners due to the closing of mines and the restructuring of careers]. http://www.tankou.org/modules/tankou3/index.php?id=10.
  56. Yoshioka, H. (2011). Genshiryoku no shakai shi [A social history of nuclear power]. Tokyo: Asahi shimbun shuppan.Google Scholar
  57. Zenkoku zenchiiki no dengen ricchi chiiki taisaku kofu kin banzuke [Ranking of All Areas by Subsidies to Electricity Generating Areas], in Nihon chiiki banzuke, Accessed November 29, 2016. http://area-info.jpn.org/PowerGrantAll.html#area182028.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harvard Law SchoolCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations