Analyzing preliminary references as the powerbase of the European Court of Justice
- 558 Downloads
The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is a very powerful court compared to other international courts and even national courts of last resort. Observers almost unanimously agree that it is the preliminary references procedure that made the ECJ the powerful court it is today. In this article, we analyze the factors that lead national courts to use the procedure. We add to previous studies by constructing a comprehensive panel dataset (1982–2008) and identify the economic structure, familiarity with EU law, and tenure of democracy as new determinants.
KeywordsEuropean Court of Justice Court behavior Preliminary reference procedure
JEL ClassificationH77 K33
The authors thank Andreas Engert, Christoph Engel, Paulo Guimarães, Mariusz Goleckifor, Gerhard Wagner, Daniel Zimmer, two anonymous referees as well as the editors of this journal for helpful comments and suggestions. We would like to thank the European Association of Law & Economics (Hamburg 2011), the German Association of Law & Economics (Bonn 2011) and the American Law and Economic Association (Stanford 2012) participants.
- Allison, P. D., & Waterman, R. P. (2002). Fixed effects negative binomial regression models. In M. Stoltenberg (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 247–265). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
- CEPEJ (European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice). (2010). European judicial systems: Efficiency and quality of justice. https://wcd.coe.int.
- EuGH. (2009). Jahresbericht. http://curia.europa.eu.
- Fiorina, M. (1982). Legislative choice of regulatory forms: Legal process or administrative process. Public Choice, 38, 33–66.Google Scholar
- Guimarães, P. (2008). The fixed effects negative binomial model revisited. Economics Letters, 99, 63–66.Google Scholar
- Harutyanyan, G., & Mavcic, A. (1999). Constitutional review and its development in the modern world. Ljbubljana: Yerevan.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations—Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
- La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1997). Legal determinants of external finance. Journal of Finance, 52, 1131–1150.Google Scholar
- Nugent, N. (1999). The government and politics of the European Union. Houndsmills: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Putnam, R. (1993). Making democracy work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, M. (1992). The European Court of Justice. In A. Sbragia (Ed.), Europolitics—Institutions and policymaking in the “New” European community (pp. 123–156). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Vink, M., Claes, M., & Arnold, C. (2009). Explaining the use of preliminary references by domestic courts in EU member states: A mixed-method comparative analysis. Paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference of the European Union Studies Association.Google Scholar
- Voigt, S. (2010). The interplay between National and International Law—Its economic effects drawing on four new indicators. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=925796.
- Zweigert, K., & Kötz, H. (1998). An introduction to comparative law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar