Coffee consumption and risk of rare cancers in Scandinavian countries
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Studies on the association between heavy coffee consumption and risk of less frequently diagnosed cancers are scarce. We aimed to quantify the association between filtered, boiled, and total coffee consumption and the risk of bladder, esophageal, kidney, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. We used data from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Information on coffee consumption was available for 193,439 participants. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the investigated cancer sites by category of total, filtered, and boiled coffee consumption. Heavy filtered coffee consumers (≥ 4 cups/day) had a multivariable adjusted HR of 0.74 of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (95% CI 0.57–0.95) when compared with light filtered coffee consumers (≤ 1 cup/day). We did not observe significant associations between total or boiled coffee consumption and any of the investigated cancer sites, neither in the entire study sample nor in analyses stratified by sex. We found an increased risk of bladder cancer among never smokers who were heavy filtered or total coffee consumers, and an increased risk of stomach cancer in never smokers who were heavy boiled coffee consumers. Our data suggest that increased filtered coffee consumption might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find evidence of an association between coffee consumption and the risk of esophageal or kidney cancer. The increased risk of bladder and stomach cancer was confined to never smokers.
KeywordsCoffee Filtered Boiled Cancer Bladder Esophageal Kidney Pancreatic Stomach Prospective cohort study
The authors thank the NOWAC Study staff and participants for their contribution. The authors used the services of Trudy Perdix-Thoma for the language editing of the manuscript. We acknowledge the Northern Sweden Diet Database and the funds supporting it, including the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE) and the Västerbotten County Council.
Sources of funding
Supported by UiT The Arctic University of Norway. The funding sources had no involvement in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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